SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: ethnological parallel; ethnographic analogy CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A contemporary culture or behavior that, by the use of analogy and homology, is considered to be similar to another in history and therefore shed light on the latter. It is the use of both material and nonmaterial aspects of a living culture to form models to test interpretations of archaeological remains.
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: The use of observations or knowledge of present-day people to interpret archaeological findings.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A second, and presumed significant, occurrence of a trait under consideration, implying derivation or contact; a secondary occurrence similar enough to show resemblance.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: collateral flaking CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A secondary flaking technique that is often found on the earliest projectile points and stone tools, usually performed on the blade faces, in which the removal of flakes was performed in such a manner to remove flakes of similar size, depth, length and direction to result in flake scars which are parallel. Typically the mark of a well accomplished flintknapper. Such flake scars are found only on few specimens and can be quite aesthetically beautiful to behold.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: adze CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A cutting tool, similar to an ax, in which the blade is set at right angles to the handle or haft. One of the earliest tools, it was widely distributed in Stone Age cultures in the form of a handheld stone chipped to form a blade. By Egyptian times, it was made of stone, metal, or shell and had acquired the handle. It is distinguished from the ax (working edgeparallel with haft) by its asymmetrical cross-section. This carpenter's tool was used for rough dressing of timber and possibly for tree felling and for hollowing out a dugout canoe. The adz also was used in the ritual ceremony Opening of the Mouth in Egypt; touching it to the mouth of the mummy or statue of the deceased was thought to restore the senses.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: adz, adze-blade CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A cutting tool, similar to an ax, in which the blade is set at right angles to the handle or haft. One of the earliest tools, it was widely distributed in Stone Age cultures in the form of a handheld stone chipped to form a blade. By Egyptian times, it was made of stone, metal, or shell and had acquired the handle. It is distinguished from the ax (working edgeparallel with haft) by its asymmetrical cross-section. This carpenter's tool was used for rough dressing of timber and possibly for tree felling and for hollowing out a dugout canoe. The adz also was used in the ritual ceremony Opening of the Mouth in Egypt; touching it to the mouth of the mummy or statue of the deceased was thought to restore the senses.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: The Agrelo culture was centered in northwestern Argentina and dates from AD 1 to 1000. The type site is just south of Mendoza and it features distinctive deep, wide-mouthed pottery with parallel stepped incised lines, punctations, and fingernail impressions, typical of southern Andean tradition. Pottery spindle whorls, crude figurines, labrets, clubheads, triangular projectile points, and beads of stone have been found. Pit inhumations were marked by stone circles. The Agrelo represents the agriculture-pottery threshold in this semi-arid area. Nearby coastal pottery styles (Cienega, El Molle) may be precursors to Agrelo.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: The native people of Hokkaido, Sakhalin, and the Kuril Islands, Japan, who are physically different from their Mongoloid neighbors. They once lived by hunting, trapping, and fishing and also grew buckwheat and numbered about 17,000 in the 1940s. Ainu appear to be descendants of the early Caucasoid peoples who were once spread over northern Asia. They did not undergo the sociocultural changes of the Yayoi and Kofun periods, but remained Epi-Jomon until about the end of the 8th century; it then was transformed into the Satsumonculture. The Ainu were pushed northward over the centuries by the Japanese. Intermarriage and cultural assimilation have made the traditional Ainu almost extinct. Their most important ritual, the Bear Ceremonial, find parallels in Okhutsk ceremonialism.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A number of Neolithic cultures recognized near the Amur River in eastern Siberia. They are mainly defined by the presence of pottery. In the Middle Amur region, the earliest phase is known as the Novopetrovka bladeculture. Later is the Gromatukha culture, with unifacially flaked adzes, bifacially flaked arrowheads, and laurel-leaf knives and spearheads. Settlements on Osinovoe Lake, which are characterized by large pit houses, date to around the 3rd millennium BC. Millet was cultivated, representing the first food production in the area, and there was fishing. A fourth Neolithicculture in the area, dating to the mid-2nd millennium BC was a combination of farming and fishing by people who moved there from the Lower Amur area. The Neolithic of the Lower Amur is known from sites such as Kondon, Suchu Island, and Voznesenovka. Fishing provided the economic basis for the establishment of unusually large sedentary settlements of pit houses -- a situation paralleling the examples from the Northwest coast of North America. In the 1st millennium BC, iron was introduced and fortified villages constructed. In Middle Amur, millet farming became the lifeway.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A tellsite in the Kara Kum oasis of southern Turkestan, first excavated in the 1880s and again in 1904. Its name has been given to a Chalcolithicculture of the 5th and 4th millennium BC that parallels that of the sites of Sialk and Hissar (Hassuna) in Iran, especially with connections in pottery styles.. Characteristic finds include fine pottery with geometric painted decoration and simple copper tools. There was a farming subsistence economy and metal ores were probably imported from the south.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Aqualithic CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: This term has been used to describe a widespread series of cultures in the high lake and river areas of the southern Sahara and Sahal between the 8th and 3rd millennia BC (also 10,000-8000 BP). There are barbed boneharpoon heads and pottery with parallel wavy lines that reveal some similarities between the regions. First investigated at Early Khartoum, sites of this type are now known as far to the southeast as the Lake Turkana basin in Kenya. To the west, related material is found as far as Kourounkorokale in Mali. The greatest significance of the aquatic civilization" lies in the settled lifestyle of its people for this led up to the subsequent adoption of food production. Artifacts include bone harpoons."
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A mid-Holocenetoolindustry of the Australian Aborigines that appeared some 3000-4000 years ago when those peoples began to use a new ensemble of small, flaked stone tools (although adze flakes first appeared possibly 2000 years earlier). The types consisted of backed blades and flakes, unifacial and bifacial points, and small adze flakes. There are some regional distributions of tools, including Bondi points, geometric microliths, Pirri points, and Tula adzes. All except the Bondi points and geometric microliths were still in use as parts of wooden weapons and tools at the time of European contact. The industry has close parallels in the islands of Southeast Asia, especially in the microliths of southwestern Sulawesi from 4000 BC.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A site in Wiltshire, England, at which stands one of Britain's finest megalithic monuments (known as henges) and one of the largest ceremonial structures in Europe. It was built c 2000 BC in the Neolithic, where the ridgeways of southern England meet, a natural site for tribal gatherings. It consists of a large bank with internal ditch (1.2 km long) with four equally spaced entrances. Inside the ditch was set a circle of 98 sarsen stones, weighing as much as 40 tons each. In the center were two smaller stone circles, each c 100 meters in diameter. The northern circle contains a U-shaped setting of three large stones, and the southern inner circle once had a complexarrangement of stones at its center. The RingStone, a huge stone perforated by a natural hole, stood within the earthworks and main stonecircle at the southern entrance. The southern entrance leads out to two parallel rows of sarsens forming an avenue 15 m wide and 2.5 km long which ends at a ritual building (the so-called Sanctuary) on Overton Hill. Traces of a second avenue remain on the opposite side of the monument. From the bottom of the ditchcame sherds of Neolithic Windmill Hill, Peterborough, and Grooved Ware styles, while higher up were fragments of South British (Long Necked) Beaker and Bronze Age pottery. Burials with Beaker and Rinyo-Clacton wares have been excavated at the bases of some of the stones. Near the southern end of the Avenue was an occupation site with Neolithic and Beaker sherds. The complex geometry of the site is studied, especially the possible astronomical alignments built into it. The circles at Avebury and the wooden structure on Overton Hill were all probably built at the same time by Neolithic communities.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: axe CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: One of the last major categories of stone tool to be invented, around the end of the last Ice Age in the Palaeolithic. A flat, heavy cutting tool of stone or metal (bronze) in which the cutting edge is parallel to the haft and which might have the head and handle in one piece. Its main function was for woodworking (hewing, cleaving, or chopping trees) but it was also used as a weapon of war, as the battle-ax. There are many forms of ax, depending on the different materials and methods of hafting. The word ax" is now used instead of celt. "Hand-ax" is used to denote the earlier implement which was not hafted. In Mesolithic times stone axes were usually chipped from a block of flint and could be resharpened by the removal of a flake from the end. In the Neolithic axes were polished and often perforated to aid hafting. Axes are now usually iron with a steeledge or blade and fixed by means of a socket in the handle. Smaller lighter ones are called hatchets."
axis of flaking
CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: An imaginary line drawn roughly down the middle of a lithicflake as viewed from the dorsal side and extending from the point of percussion and is parallel to the direction of striking or the line of force during striking.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A phase in Ecuador's culture, dating c 500 BC - 500 AD that was discovered on La Plata Island (Manabi). Large pyramidal platform mounds, helmeted figurines, spouted jars, and incised pottery have been found and evidence of polychrome painting and metallurgy. Houses with saddle roofs (low, downward-curving roof ridges), pottery head/neck rests, figurines with one leg crossed over the other, Pan pipes graduated towards the center and ear plugs shaped like golf tees were unique to the culture -- but they have parallels in southeast Asia. It has been suggested that they were introduced into Ecuador by voyagers from across the Pacific. Particularly elaborate anthropomorphic vessels give information on dress and ornamentation (nose discs and tusk-like pendants). Bahia was a well-developed socio-political and religious unit. The La Plata Island site was probably a ceremonial center as there is little evidence of daily living. Unfortunately, many sites have already been lost to modern development.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Linearbandkeramik, LBK, Linienbandkeramik (German) CATEGORY: ceramics; culture DEFINITION: A pottery of the Danubian I culture, a Neolithicculture that existed over large areas of Europe north and west of the Danube River c 5th millennium BC. It consists of hemispherical bowls and globular jars, usually round-based and strongly suggesting copies of gourds. The name refers specifically to the standard incised lineardecoration which was pairs of parallel lines forming spirals, meanders, chevrons, etc. There was farming of emmerwheat and barley and the keeping of domestic animals such as cattle. The most common stone tool was a polished stone adze. The people lived in large rectangular houses in medium-sized village communities or as small, dispersed clusters.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An Early Iron Age defended settlement of the Lusatian culture of c 550-400 BC, on a former island in Lake Biskupin, northwest Poland. The island site was ringed by a breakwater of piles and fortified by a rampart of timber compartments filled with earth and stones. Inside were more than 100 wooden cabins, which were all erected within a year, arranged along parallel streets made of logs. Up to 1200 people may have been housed there. Workshops for craftsmen in bone, bronze, and horn have been excavated. Waterlogged ground preserved the structures.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: blade tool; blade-~ (used attributively) CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A long, narrow, sharp-edged, thin flake of stone, used especially as a tool in prehistoric times. This flake is detached by striking from a prepared core, often with a hammer. Its length is usually at least twice the width. The blade may be a tool in itself, or may be the blank from which a two-edged knife, burin, or spokeshave is manufactured. This term, then, is used by archaeologists in several ways: (1) It can refer to a fragment of stone removed from a parent core. The blade is used to manufacture artifacts in what is known as the blade and core industry". (2) That portion of an artifact usually a projectile point or a knife beyond the base or tang. (3) In certain cultures small artifacts are called microblades. It was a great technological advance when it was discovered that a knapper could make more than one tool from a chunk of stone. The Châtelperronian and Aurignacian were the earliest of the known blade cultures -- associated with the arrival of modern humans. Industries in which many of the tools are made from blades became prominent at the start of the Upper Palaeolithicperiod. A typical blade has parallel sides and regular scars running down its back parallel with the sides. A 'backed blade' is a blade with one edge blunted by the removal of tiny flakes. Blades led to another invention -- the handle. A handle made it easier and much safer to manipulate a sharp two-edged blade."
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Calendar Round CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A ritually and historically important calendar used throughout Mesoamerica in which the solar calendar of 365 days ran in parallel with a sacred 260-day ritualcalendar of named days. The calendar round is a 52-year cycle, since both calendars begin on the same day only once every 52 years. Coefficients for days and months were expressed by bar-and-dot numerals, a system that is first known in Monte Albán I and that became characteristic of the Classic Maya. The basic structure of the Mayan calendar is common to all calendars of Mesoamerica. To identify a date of the Calendar Round, they designated the day by its numeral and name, and added the name of the current month, indicating the number of its days that had elapsed by prefixing one of the numerals from 0 through 19. A date written in this way will occur once in every Calendar Round, at intervals of 52 years. It is the meshing of the two Maya calendars, the Tzolkin and the Haab.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The site of a national monument on the coast of the Chukchi Sea with a horizontal stratigraphy covering the whole of north Alaskan prehistory. Located on 114 ridges along ancient beach lines, the monument's remarkable archaeological sites illustrate the cultural evolution of the Arctic people, dating back some 4,000 years and continuing to modern Eskimos. There are campsites of 10 successive cultures, beginning with the Denbigh Flint Complex, followed by the Old Whaling culture, then by the Eskimo cultures known as Trails Creek-Chloris, Chloris, Norton, Near Ipiutak, Ipiutak, Birnirk, Western Thule, and late prehistoric. On the terrace behind the beaches were two more phases (Palisades I and II) which go back to c 8000 BC. The stratigraphy is visible as a sequence of strips, roughly parallel to the shoreline, with the oldest, Denbigh, being furthest from the present-day shoreline. This horizontal sequence, in combination with the vertical stratigraphy of Onion Portage, forms the most reliable chronological framework in Western Arctic prehistory.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A village in western France near the Atlantic coast that is the site of more than 3,000 prehistoricstone monuments of the alignmenttype. These menhirs are arranged in three groups of 10-13 parallel rows, which ended at semicircles or rectangles of standing stones. The single stone menhirs and multistone dolmens were made from local granite and are worn by time and weather and covered in white lichen. The area also has a series of long cairns of mid-Neolithic to Early Bronze Age which covers funerary chambers and secondary cists. The grave goods included polished axes of rare stones such as jadeite and fibrolite, stone boxes containing charcoal, cattle bones, and pottery. The area was clearly an important ritual center, venerated by the Bretons until fairly recent times, and adopted by the Romans for religious purposes. Christians added crosses and other symbols to the stones. In 1874, James Miln uncovered the remains of a Gallo-Roman villa one mile east of the village. The Musée Miln-Le Rouzic in Carnac has an important collection of artifacts.
CATEGORY: feature; structure DEFINITION: A defensive wall consisting of parallel walls with a space or internal chambers in the thickness of the wall. Sometimes the chambers were rooms; sometimes they were filled with debris or left empty.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: chalcedony CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: A fine-grained hard stone, a variety of the silicamineralquartz. A form of chert, it is found in a variety of milky or grayish colors with distinctive parallel bands of contrasting color. In antiquity, chalcedony was the stone most used by the gem engraver for beads, seals, and sometimes as a substitute for flint. The agate, carnelian, jasper, and onyx are some of the varieties still cut and polished as ornamental stones.
CATEGORY: ceramics; culture DEFINITION: In central Peru, a distinctive type of pottery made by the Chancay people between 1000-1500 AD (from Late Intermediate Period). It is black-on-white with parallel or checkered design, sometimes with biomorphic figures or painted in soft colors. The most common forms were tall, two-handled, egg-shaped collared jars; bowls and beakers with slightly bowed sides; and large figurines. The pottery is associated with large effigy figurines, dolls, and lacelike textiles. Chancayweaving was considered excellent.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The site of a ruined ancient Mayan city in south-central Yucatán state, Mexico. Chichén Itzá was founded in about the 6th century AD, presumably by Mayan peoples of the Yucatán Peninsula who had occupied the region since Pre-Classic, or Formative, Period times (1500 BC-AD 300). The only source of water in the region is from wells (Mayan cenotes) formed by the collapse of portions of the limestone formation of the area. Two big cenotes on the site made it a suitable place for the city and gave it its name, from chi (mouths") chen ("wells") and Itzá the name of the tribe that settled there. There are traces of early occupation at the site but the oldest surviving buildings are in the Puucstyle of the 8th-early 10th centuries. In the 10th century after the collapse of the Maya cities of the southern lowlands Chichén Itzá was invaded -- probably by the Toltecs. New buildings have their closest parallels at Tula and offerings thrown into the Sacred Cenote or Well of Sacrifice show widespread trade contacts. Chichén Itzá was the dominant power in Yucatan until about 1200 when it was superseded by Mayapán. At the center of the site is the Castillo or temple-Pyramid of Kulkulkan the Maya equivalent of Quetzacóatl; this is linked by a causeway to the nearby Sacred Cenote. Other major structures include the Temple of the Warriors (in front of which stands a Chacmool) large 'dance platforms' the Group of a Thousand Columns the Temple of the Jaguars and the largest Ball Court in Mesoamerica. Bas-relief carvings on a massive skull rack (tzompantli) shows the Ball Game to be associated with scenes of sacrifice. Relief carvings with themes of conquest and violence about and representations of Maya warriors submitting to Toltec warriors have been found on gold discs recovered from the Sacred Cenote."
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Property possessed by many minerals of breaking in certain preferred direction along smooth plane surfaces; property possessed by certain rocks of breaking with relative ease along parallel planes or nearly parallel surfaces. Rock cleavage is designated as slaty, phyllitic, schistose, and gneissic.
coil and paddle
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: A method of pottery-making involving the use of rolledclay coils to build vessel walls, followed by the welding of the walls with a decorated wooden or ceramic paddle. Parallel breaks between the coils and impressed designs on pottery fragments are evidence of this technique.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: combed ware CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: Any pottery decorated by drawing a toothed instrument across the surface of the soft clay or colored slip. The pottery was often decorated by the application of two or more different-colored slips that was either brushed or combed to produce the effect of marbled paper, a broad band of parallel incisions, often wavy.
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: A finishing technique in ceramicsmanufacture whereby a tool with multiple teeth or prongs is dragged along the surface of the fabric to leave multiple, nearly parallel incisions, either straight or wavy.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: convergent evolution; antonym: diffusion CATEGORY: term; technique DEFINITION: Term used to describe the appearance of similar traits in different areas or at different times or in different contexts, as a result of parallel or converging evolution. For example, rocker pattern was used for decorating pottery in widely separated contexts.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A bow made with a crossbow parallel to the arrow and operated by a mechanical trigger release. It was likely invented by the Chinese in the late Chou Dynasty (c 400 BC) for defending their cities. The best-preserved examples were in Ch'u state. Chinese skill in bronzecasting enabled them to make the accurate trigger of several interlocking parts for the weapon's effectiveness. Cast-bronze trigger mechanisms are commonly found in late Eastern Zhou burials along with inlaid bronzebow fittings and bronzearrow points. It was the most important weapon of the Middle Ages, with its earliest appearance in Europe was in Italian cities during the 10th and 11th centuries.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: decumanus maximus CATEGORY: feature DEFINITION: East-west street of a Roman camp or town. The square grid layout of the two was basically identical and the decumanus usually ran from the gate in the middle of one wall to the gate opposite. The decumanus maximus was the main east-west street. The main transverse street was known as the cardo; the administrative block or forum was at the intersection of the two. Other decumani parallel to the decumanus maximus cross the transverse cardines to divide the area into insulae.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Neolithic open settlement site in northern Luzon, Philippines, dating from c 2500 BC. The occupation had pottery, flakes with edge-gloss, and postholes of small square houses, and items paralleled in Taiwanese Neolithic sites.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Eden points are known for their exceptionally well done parallel pressure flaking and diamond cross-section. The people that made them were hunting large animals like bison. Eden points were first discovered in Yuma County, Colorado blow-outs during the 1930's but none were found in situ until the spring of 1940 when Harold J. Cook spent several days digging in a site discovered by O. M. Finley. The Eden point was named by H. M. Wormington after the town of Eden, Wyoming. The Eden type site was named the Finley site in honor of O. M. Finley who discovered it.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: flake-blade CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: An imprecisely defined elongated flaked stone artifact with dorsal ridges associated with sub-Saharan African Middle Stone Age collections. Unlike true blades, flake-blades do not necessarily have parallel sides, nor are they necessarily at least twice as long as they are wide. They were usually end-struck off cores, frequently taper to a point to form artifacts termed convergent or pointed flake-blades, and often have faceted platforms. Some examples were retouched to form knives or denticulate or notched tools.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: fluted projectile point CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A projectile point with a distinctive longitudinal groove left after removal of a channel flake; a long, medial channel notched to the base of a flake. The channeled flake is removed from one or both faces by striking the specially prepared base sharply with a piece of wood or bone. The sharp ridges of the flutes were ground smooth near the base of the point, to prevent them from cutting the bindings when the point was inserted into a notched foreshaft. These points have extreme symmetry, careful flaking, and the removal of a long, parallel and shallow flake from one or both sides. Fluted points are characteristic of the Palaeoindian peoples of North America such as the Clovis and Folsom projectile points.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A limestone shelter site in the Lower Murray River Valley of South Australia with human occupation from c 3000 BC and deposits spanning 5000 years. The evidence parallels the nearby sequence of Devon Downs and includes stone artifacts (Pirri points and microliths) and a well-preserved dingoskeleton dated to 1000-1200 BC.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Chalcolithiccemeterysite in Campania, Italy, with 3rd millennium BC rock-cut tombs; the type site of the Campanian Gaudoculture. The tombs produced up to 25 disarticulated skeletons each, and great quantities of highly burnished unusual pots, especially asymmetric straight-necked flasks (sometimes called askoi as they approximate the form of an askos). There were also cups, open dishes, lids, and double vessels. This group has with parallels with Central Italian Rinaldone. There are flint arrowheads and daggers; metalwork is rare, but some copper daggers and awls occur and a few small silver objects.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: ko CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A dagger-ax, the characteristic weapon of the Chinese Bronze Age during the Shang Dynasty and then made from iron from the Zhou Dynasty onwards. The dagger-shaped bronzeblade, usually with a flat tang but occasionally with a shaft hole, was mounted perpendicular to the wooden shaft. The blade had a crosspiece parallel to the shaft to help hold it in place. Bronze Age blades and non-functional jade replicas of blades often appear as mortuary gifts in Shang tombs. The earliest ge yet known have come from Erlitou, c mid-2nd millennium BC. In the Eastern Zhouperiod the ge was sometimes combined with a spear, the ge blade at right angles to the spearhead, to form a ji. The ji was in existence by the late 6th or early 5th century BC. They are chopping implements.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A general category of artifacts that includes lunates (crescent-shaped), triangles (three sides), trapezes (four sizes, two approximately parallel), and rectangles (four sides) - generally very small tools, usually less than an inch long and with the shapes formed by backing and a sharp cutting edge
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Globular Amphora culture CATEGORY: ceramics; culture DEFINITION: A type of pottery vessel which has given its name to a Late Neolithic or Copper Age culture of the 3rd millennium BC through much of Germany, Poland, and western Russia. The amphora itself is bulbous in shape with a narrow neck and small handles (for hanging) and appeared with the eastern wing of the European funnel-necked beakerculture differentiated from the western part. Some examples are undecorated, while others have incised, stamped or cord-impressed ornament on the upper part of the vessel. There are individual burials in stone cists under barrows, accompanies by the globular amphora. The culture is closely linked both TRB Culture and may be a parallel development to the Single Grave/Corded Ware group in Scandinavia of 2600-2200 bc.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Gumelnitsa, Gumeilnita CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A Late Neolithic/Copper Age culture of eastern Romania, Bulgaria, and northern Greece (eastern Balkans) c 3800-3000/2500 BC. There were permanent villages of rectangular houses forming low tells, use of copper and gold, and a flourishing painted pottery. The pottery was often decorated with graphite designs. Gumelnita can be derived from the Hamangia, Boian, and Maritza cultures which preceded it in this area. The culture parallels the partitioning of the closely related Karanovo V and VI culture in Bulgaria. The Gumelnita represents the climax of the Neolithicsequence in south Rumania.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A large cave site in Cyrenaica, Libya, with the most complete sequence, back to c 78,000 BC, of Upper Pleistocene and Holocene industries known from a single site in North Africa. The oldest flintindustry is a Libyan variant of the pre-Aurignacian (Libyan Amudian), and is followed successively by Levalloiso-Mousterian (60,000 years ago), Dabban (40,000 years ago), Oranian (18-16,000 years ago), Libyco-Capsian, and finally (from c 6800-6400) by Neolithic with pottery and domesticated animals. Based upon the striking of parallel-sided blades from prismatic cores, the earliest stage has clear affinities with broadly contemporary industries in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. Its makers exploited both large game animals and seafood resources. There was a return to bladetechnology with the Dabbanindustry and the beginning of the Dabban occupation of Crenaica seems to have coincided with the onset of very arid conditions in the Saharan regions to the south. The Oranian had small backed bladelets.
header and stretcher
CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: In architecture, header is a brick or stone laid in a wall with its end towards the face of the wall; stretcher is a brick or stone laid with its length parallel to the face of a wall.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: parallelism CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: A theory that a few of the total mass of cultural traits possessed and shared by the peoples of the world have been invented more than once. The theory maintains the likelihood of new ideas, such as the invention of copper and iron working, or the erection of particular types of monumental building, were invented in more than one place at the same or different times, opposing the theory of diffusion. New chronometric dating techniques have shown the probability of independent invention for at least some of these ideas.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The northern part of Egypt, land around the Nile delta and Memphis, from modern Cairo to the Mediterranean coast. This geographic and cultural division of Egypt was bounded generally by the 30th parallel north in the south and by the Mediterranean Sea in the north. The boundary between Lower and Upper Egypt was somewhere between Lisht and Meidum on the west bank of the Nile. On the east bank, the second nome of Upper Egypt existed further to the north. Characterized by broad expanses of fertile soil, Lower Egypt contrasts sharply with Upper Egypt, where the centers of habitation along the Nile valley are close to the desert. Lower Egypt in late predynastic times constituted a political entity separate from Upper Egypt. Menes (fl. 3100 BC) joined the two regions, using the royal title, King of Upper and Lower Egypt.""
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A long-lived potterytradition of central Vanuatu, Melanesia, dated to between c 700 BC-1600 AD. It had incised and applied relief and is quite different from the ancestral Polynesian Lapita pottery. It was a Melanesian tradition, with parallels in the northern Solomons and New Caledonia.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A long-lived potterytradition of central Vanuatu, Melanesia, dated to between c 700 BC-1600 AD. It had incised and applied relief and is quite different from the ancestral Polynesian Lapita pottery. It was a Melanesian tradition, with parallels in the northern Solomons and New Caledonia.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Bel CATEGORY: deity DEFINITION: The god of Babylon who in the 13th-12th centuries BC ousted Enlil as the most prominent god in the Sumerian pantheon. He became the ruler of the gods rather than just their head, which represented a shift in the relationship between the gods -- paralleling the rise in power of the Mesopotamian kings. Marduk's seat was at Babylon; Marduk's chief temples at Babylon were the Esagila and the Etemenanki, a ziggurat with a shrine of Marduk on the top. Originally he seems to have been a god of thunderstorms.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An island group in western Micronesia with a sequence starting with settlement around 1500 BC, by island people in Southeast Asia. They made a distinctive red-slipped ware (Marianas Redware Phase), sometimes incised with lime-filled decoration, closely related to Philippine wares. By 800 AD, a plain, unslipped ware was in use, and stone architecture had developed. Parallel rows of upright pillars topped with hemispheric capstones (halege) were erected. The pillars were supports for structures called latte (after which term the culture is named), which may have served as houses or canoe sheds. Each village had from one to several latte structures. Stone and shell tools were used and the betel nut was chewed, as shown by extended burials most often located between the rows of latte.
Maupiti burial site
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Maupiti burial ground CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An early Eastern Polynesian burialsite on Maupiti, Society Islands, dated to 800-1200 AD. There are 16 flexed and extended burials with grave goods of adzes, pendants, pearl-shell fishhooks paralleling the Hane in the Marquesas, and elsewhere in the Society Islands at Vaito'otia (at Huahine) and in New Zealand.
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: A ceramicstyle developing out of Coyotlatelco and first appearing in association with major architecture at Tula, Mexico in the post-Classic Toltecphase (9th-12th century AD). The orange-on-buff (or red-on-buff) pottery was decorated by straight or wavy parallel lines produced by multiple brushes.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Term meaning land between the (two) rivers" the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in western Asia (modern Iraq) which encompasses various ancient kingdoms. This land was the home of the world's earliest civilization that of the Sumerians and of the later Babylonian Akkadian and Assyrian civilizations. The chronology of the prehistoric periods is based on radiocarbon dates; the historical periods' chronology is based on a combination of documentary sources and calendrical information. The area was the focus of the development of complex societies until the collapse of Mesopotamia at the end of the 1st millennium BC. The geography of the area allowed the development of husbandry agriculture and permanent settlements. Trade with other regions also flourished irrigation techniques were created as well as pottery and other crafts building methods based on clay bricks were developed and elaborate religious cults evolved. The birth of the city took place in the 4th millennium BC and the invention of writing occurred about 3000 BC -- both in Sumer. Excavations of Sumerian cities (EriduKishUrukIsinLagash Ur) have yielded thousands of clay tablets inscribed with cuneiformwriting. Sargon the king of Akkad fought wars of conquest from the Mediterranean to the Zagros and ruled over history's first empire. The Akkadians were a Semitic people and their Akkadianlanguage became the common vocabulary. The Akkadian rule only about two centuries. After that Ur (c 2112-2004 BC) the parallel dynasties of Isin and Larsa (to c 1763 BC) and then Babylon were the powers. The outstanding ruler of Babylon was Hammurabi (c 1792-1750 BC) who is best known for the code of laws he had inscribed on a great stela. From about 1600-1450 BC Babylonian culture declined as the Hurrians and the Kassites migrated into Mesopotamia and established themselves as rulers. Some time after 1500 BC the Mitannikingdom extended its rule over much of northern Mesopotamia. The language of the kingdom was Hurrian but its rulers may have been of Aryan origin. Toward the end of the 15th century BC the city of Ashur in northern Mesopotamia a region that came to be known as Assyria began its rise. By 1350 BC the Assyrian empire was well-established and its kings conquered large areas from the Mitannikingdom the Kassites and the Hittites. Another Babylonian dynasty known as the 2nd dynasty of Isin revived the greatness of the Old Empire under Nebuchadrezzar I (c 1119-1098). Assyria reached new heights of power under Tiglath-pileser I (c 1115-1077) and Ashurnasirpal II (883-859). Between 746-727 BC the Neo-Assyrian empire formed and subdued the Aramaeans who had settled much of Babylonia and then conquered Urartu Syria Israel and other areas. The empire reached its after conquering Egypt in 671 and then the reign of Ashurbanipal (668-627) but its rapid decline came soon after attacks by the Medes Scythians and Babylonians. The Assyrian empire was crushed in 609. Babylon's Nebuchadrezzar II (605-561) is best known for his destruction of Jerusalem in 588/587 and his forcing of thousands of Jews into the "Babylonian exile." The Neo-Babylonian empire ended in 539 when Nabonidus surrendered to Cyrus II of Persia. Under the Persians and Alexander the Great Babylon was a rich capital. The Seleucid kings ruled Mesopotamia from about 312 BC until the middle of the 2nd century BC. In the 2nd century BC Mesopotamia became part of the Parthian empire. Human occupation of Mesopotamia began some time around 6000 BC. The prehistoric cultural stages of Hassuna-Samarra' and Halaf succeeded each other here before there is evidence of settlement in the south (Sumer). There the earliest settlements such as Eridu appear to have been founded around 5000 BC in the late Halafperiod. From then on the cultures of the north and south move through a succession of major archaeological periods that in their southern forms are known as UbaidWarka Protoliterate and Early Dynastic at the end of which -- shortly after 3000 BC -- recorded history begins. The historical periods of the 3rd millennium are in order: Akkad Gutium 3rd dynasty of Ur; those of the 2nd millennium: Isin-Larsa Old Babylonian Kassite and Middle Babylonian; and those of the 1st millennium: Assyrian Neo-Babylonian Achaemenian Seleucid and Parthian."
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: mile fort, mile castle CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: A fortlet (small fort) set at intervals of one Roman mile along a major well-defended frontier -- such as Hadrian's Wall. They measured 60-70 x 50-60 ft. A roadway passed through the center of the milecastle and through the wall itself, with gateways at both entrances. There were two barrack buildings parallel with the road. In one corner, next to the wall, was a stairway up to the wall top; in the other was the cookhouse. It is estimated that 30-100 men could be accommodated in each milecastle.
CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: Among the most famous pre-Islamic secular palaces, located in Jordan. Although only the main building was finished, it consisted of a square enclosure with a single gate in the south side. The interior was divided into three parallel strips running from north to south. There was a triple arch leading to a long basilical hall and a square, triple-apsed throne-room, reminiscent of the bishop's palace at Bosra in Syria, which is attributed to the 6th century. The main entrance and other parts of Mshatta were faced with richly carved stone reliefs. The palace is attributed to the Umayyadcaliph Walid II (743-744) and presumably work stopped when he died. The Mshatta throne room does have a number of Sasanian elements and Iranian brickwork appears.
CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: A hard mass of mineral, usually rounded, found in various forms in soil created by the deposition of minerals from solution. The way nodules are formed can assist in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction and the age of the conditions under which they formed. Nodules are often elongate with a knobby irregular surface; they usually are oriented parallel to the bedding. Chert and flint often occur as dense and structureless nodules of nearly pure silica in limestone or chalk, where they seem to be replacements of the carbonate rock by silica.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: In aerial photography, taken from an angle (neither perpendicular nor parallel) so as to reveal elevation and contours.
CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: A Roman construction technique using squared blocks, the equivalent of ashlar masonry. It was ordinary stone walling and was used as a facing especially for important public buildings under the earlier empire -- for example, the exterior of the Colosseum. They were fairly large squared blocks laid in regular courses as headers (stone or brick laid with its end toward the face of the wall) and stretchers (stone or brick laid with its length parallel to the face of the wall).
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A ceremonial village of 48 stone houses with corbelled roofs on the rim of Rano Kau volcanic crater on Easter Island. Famous as the gathering-place for the annual 'birdman' ceremony which took place on the island, the Orongo village was probably built in the 16th century AD and the ceremony itself continued until c1878. Adjacent to the village are rock carvings (petroglyphs) of birdmen holding eggs. The corbelled houses are unique in Oceania and South American parallels have been claimed for them.
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: A way of depicting an object graphically, similar to a perspective view but with lines that would be parallel on the object shown parallel on paper.
Pampa de las Llamas or Moxeke
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Major Initial Period ceremonial center on the north-central coast of Peru. The site is on a linear axis with the large mound of Moxeke at one end and Huaca A at the other. There are small U-shaped structures parallel to the central axis.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Pan-shan, Banshan CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A branch of the Yang-Shao culture of Neolithic China with a distinctive painted pottery, c 2500-2000 BC. There are extensive cemeteries in the hills of the upper Yellow River basin in Kansu province which yielded great quantities of the pottery with inhumation burials. The most common were large globular urns painted with bold spiral or other curvilinear designs or lozenges in red, black, purple, or brown. The 'death pattern' consists of a red band between two black ones internally fringed. The geometric patterns or stylized figures are of men, fish, and birds; there is no glaze. Coiling was common, but some of the wares were probably shaped on a slow, or hand-turned, wheel. The handles are set low on the body of the urns, and the lower part of the body is left undecorated -- as with most Greek Proto-Geometric funerary ware, to which there is a certain likeness. Striking parallels have been found in Turkestan, the Caucasus, and the Ukraine.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: [P'ei-li-kang] CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Neolithic sites in Henan Province, China, and the name of the earliest millet-based culture of northern China. It includes or parallels Cishan, Laoguantai, and Lijiacun.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Late Neolithic and Chalcolithicburialcomplex in Valais, Switzerland, with one large megalithic chamber and other smaller tombs. Many stelae have been found within tombs which have triangular daggers on them paralleling those in northern Italy in the 3rd millennium BC.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A Late Neolithic and Eneolithicculture of Transylvania, northwestern Romania, and dated to the early 4th millennium BC. Petresti settlement pattern is tell-based, with most occupations preceded by Early Vinca levels. The defining characteristic is a wide range of painted wares, bichrome and trichrome in style, and decorated with brown parallel lines in elaborate patterns. The culture is contemporaneous with the early stages of Cucuteni-Tripolye to the east and Gumelnita to the southeast.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A term for South African early Middle Stone Age artifact assemblages of the late Middle or early Late Pleistocene, occurring mainly in the Transvaal although related material is also found further south. It belongs to the general group of industries based upon the removal of flakes from prepared cores but is differentiated from other contemporary industries of this type by the presence of large numbers of long parallel-sided flake-blades (many of which have minimal retouch or use damage on the sides). The best sequence showing the development of the Pietersburgindustry is at the Cave of Hearths in the northern Transvaal. The chronology is still poorly defined, but is roughly 60,000-20,000 BC or after.
CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: Name of projectile points developed out of the Clovis and Folsom points of the Big Game Hunting tradition, after 8000 BC in North America. Unfluted, large lanceolatestone forms were made by pressure flaking techniques. The two main types of Plano points are Plainview of 7800-5100 BC and Parallel which are longer, more slender, and more finely made.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A settlement site on the island of Lemnos in the northern Aegean, first occupied in the Final Neolithic. Its seven successive phases span the Neolithic to Middle Bronze Age, parallel to the first six cities of Troy. Its Neolithic cities, equipped with stone baths, represented the most advanced Neolithic civilization yet found in the Aegean. The Copper Age city was dated to c 5000 BC. In the Early Bronze Age (c 3000 BC) it was a fortified township with stone defenses, one of the largest in the Aegean, with houses laid out along streets and evidence of the practice of metallurgy. An associated cemetery of inhumation burials has many with rich grave goods. There was a catastrophic destruction, though it was later reoccupied.
CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A flake struck from a polyhedral core, at least twice as long as it is wide, with steep, parallel sides, and trapezoidal (prismatic) in cross-section.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Röessen culture CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: The successor of western branch of the Neolithic Linear PotteryCulture, with which is has many features in common. Its main distribution was in Rhineland and central and southern Germany, parallel to Lengyelculture in Czechoslovakia and mid-Danube. It is characterized by pottery with complex incised geometric motifs and by sites with trapezoidal longhouses. Radiocarbon dates indicate early 4th millennium BC. It is named after a cemeterysite in Halle with 70 burials accompanied by bone and jet necklaces, shaft-hole-stone axes, and some long trapezoidal ones.
ridge and furrow
CATEGORY: feature DEFINITION: A pattern of parallel ridges resulting from the plowing of strip fields in medieval and later open field systems. The fossilized remains of ancient plowmarks are a common sight in England, having the appearance of long, roundedparallel ridges with alternating ditches. There is no absolute dating for the ridge and furrow field; a few contentious examples could be Roman in date, while others are as late as the 17th and 18th centuries.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sa Huynh CATEGORY: culture; site DEFINITION: Iron Age culture and site on the central coast of southern Vietnam, dating mainly from the 1st millennium BC and associated with potteryurn burials and rich artifact assemblages paralleled most closely in the Philippines, north Borneo, and Sulawesi. The culture may be associated with early Chamic (Austronesian) settlement in Vietnam or proto-Cham, and appears to be contemporary with, but separate from, the Dong-son culture of north Vietnam. Most assemblages known are from jar burials. Characteristic artifacts include lingling-o earrings and double-headed animal pendants of jadeite. It was active c 600 BC-c 100 AD.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A locality in the south Colombian Andes highland, with a number of cemeteries, house platforms, ancient fields, stone-built chambers underneath mounds, and also a series of more than 300 stone statues representing mythological personages, some of them with jaguar fangs. The mounds commonly have internal stone-lined passageways and chambers, some of which contain sculpture, suggesting their use as places of worship as well as burial. Sculptures are rendered in a variety of techniques but are usually freestanding stelae and can be up to four meters high. Though stylistic comparisons are often made with Chavin, these themes have strong parallels in Olmeciconography. Occupation extends from about 700 BC almost to the Spanish conquest. The spectacular stonework falls somewhere between 500 BC and 1500 AD. There is also incised and modeled pottery and gold ornaments from the underground burial chambers.
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: Variant of Linear Pottery of western Bohemia, c 3900 BC, parallel to the Zeliezovce in Slovakia and southern Poland. The vessels are painted in black spirals on buff before firing.
CATEGORY: site; artifact DEFINITION: Neolithic village in Basilicata, Italy, on a hill defended by three concentric ditches. It has yielded a distinctive painted pottery of the same name, c 4500-3500 BC. Geometric designs with diagonal meanders and solid triangles are painted in black or purple-brown on a buff surface. A frequent motif is a zigzag line between parallels (linea a tremolo marginato"). Jars and handled cups are the standard forms and the elaborate handles are horizontal tubular with zoomorphic additions on the top. In the later phase a thin and markedly splayed trumpetlug was adopted from the DianaWare of Lipari. The high quality of the ware and the fact that it most often occurs in graves and other ritual contexts suggests that it was produced for special purposes. It was traded over a wide area occurring in SicilyLipari Lake Garda Malta and in central Italy."
Serra d'Alto pottery
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Neolithic village in Basilicata, Italy, on a hill defended by three concentric ditches. It has yielded a distinctive painted pottery of the same name, c 4500-3500 BC. geometric designs with diagonal meanders and solid triangles are painted in black or purple-brown on a buff surface. A frequent motif is a zigzag line between parallels (linea a tremolo marginato"). Jars and handled cups are the standard forms and the elaborate handles are horizontal tubular with zoomorphic additions on the top. In the later phase a thin and markedly splayed trumpetlug was adopted from the Dianaware of Lipari. The high quality of the ware and the fact that it most often occurs in graves and other ritual contexts suggests that it was produced for special purposes. It was traded over a wide area occurring in SicilyLipari Lake Garda Malta and in central Italy."
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: spacer-plate CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A specialized flat bead with several parallel perforations intended to hold apart in regular order the threads of a multiple strand necklace. Sometimes, as in the amber multi-perforated spacer plates of the central European and British Bronze Age and the Mycenaeans, the perforations themselves are used decoratively. They were also made of jet or faience. Similar examples found in distant regions are often taken as indicators of long rangetrade.
spit-shaped currency bar
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Wrought iron bars found in the middle and later Iron Age of central and midland parts of England that are typically parallel-sided strips of metal sometimes with the corners bent upwards at one end. They are assumed to be ingots of metal, although whether they ever had any value as currency as their name suggests is questionable.
CATEGORY: geography DEFINITION: A mapping method which presents the data as a series of layered profiles. Each traverse with the equipment is plotted as a curved profile, then each is placed in order, parallel to each other but aligned on an oblique plan so that a type of 3-D image of the sites's magnetic variatins is obtained. This method can be carried out with a proton precession magnetometer.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Ancient monument on Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England, the remains of four massive trilithons surrounded by concentric circles of megaliths, probably constructed since c 3200 BC. It was a major Neolithic and Early Bronze Age ritual monument, architecturally unique, surrounded by a whole complex of barrow cemeteries and ritual sites. It had many phases of reconstruction. Apart from a cursus, the oldest structure was a circular earthwork about 100 meters in diameter, consisting of a ditch with an inner bank broken by a single entrance. Just inside the bank was a ring of 56 Aubrey holes (pits), some of which contained cremations. There were further cremations in the ditch and on the inner plateau. The presence of groovedwarepottery, together with radiocarbon dates from a cremation suggest that Stonehenge I belongs to the end of the Neolithic. Phase II occurred in c 2200-2000 when two concentric rings of sockets were dug at the center of the site for the erection of 80 bluestones imported from the Preseli Hills of southwest Wales. To this period belongs the Avenue, two parallel banks and ditches which run from the entrance to the river Avon 3 km away. In Stonehenge's third phase, the bluestones were removed, and Sarsen stones, some weighing over 50 tons, were brought from the Downs 38 km away to the north. These blocks, unlike those of any other henge or megalithic tomb, were dressed to shape before erection, and were then set up as a circle of uprights with a continuous curving lintel, enclosing a U-shaped arrangement of five trilithons. This phase has been dated 2120 +/- 150 BC and its work was carried out by the bearers of the Wessex culture. At a later stage (phase IIIc) the bluestones were re-erected in their present positions, duplicating the sarsen structure. There is a radiocarbon date of 1540 +/- 105 BC for the early part of this final stage, and the whole of Stonehenge III probably falls within the Early Bronze Age. The final stagecame in the Middle or Late Bronze Age when the Avenue was extended 2000 meters east. The function of the monument is usually held to be religious, though it had no connection with the Druids. Theories are that the northeast-southwest axis may suggest some form of sun cult, the stone settings may have been used for astronomical observations in connection with the calendar, and the Aubrey holes for calculating the occurrence of eclipses. It has also been interpreted as the temple of a sun or sky cult. Archaeologists have long been fascinated by this monument, with its evidence of massive manpower input (one calculation suggests 30 million man-hours would have been required for the phase IIIA structure), its architectural sophistication, and astronomical alignments.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: striae (pl.) CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A linearmark, ridge, or groove, especially one of a number of similar parallel features
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Susiana, Shushan, Seleucia CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: Major city of western Asia, in Khuzistan, Iran, with its first four phases paralleling those of Mesopotamia (Ubaid, Uruk, Jemdet Nasr, and Early Dynastic). It was the capital of Elam in Akkadian times (3rd, 2nd, 1st millennium BC) and again in the first as a capital of the Achaemenid empire. Susa controlled important east-west trade routes and was the end of the Achaemenid Royal Road from Lydian Sardis. Darius built the citadel c 500 BC. The tell is made up of four separate mounds: 1) the acropolis, which has produced most of the prehistoricmaterial from the site; 2) the Royal City which has important Elamite remains of the 2nd millennium BC; 3) the Apadana, with a large, impressive Achaemenid palace; and 4) the Artisans' Town, of the Achaemenid period and later. It continued under the name of Seleucia after being captured by Alexander the Great in 331 BC; it later passed to the Parthians and Sassanians. Susa's characteristic fine ceramicware had geometric motifs painted in dark colors onto a light background. Among the more important finds of Susa are the victory stela of Naram-Sin (Akkadianperiod), many Kassite kudurru, and the law code of Hammurabi (Old Babylonian period), which had been brought to Susa from Babylon after an Elamite raid. Susa was traditionally associated with Anshan (Tepe Malyan) in Fars.
CATEGORY: geography DEFINITION: Geographical area of western Asia comprising the southern and northern sections of the Levant, bordered by the Sinai peninsula to the southwest, the Mediterranean to the west, Anatolia to the north, and the Arabian desert and Mesopotamia to the south and east. This eastern Mediterranean seaboard has parallel ranges of mountains and great river valleys and is part of the same geological fault as Great Rift Valley in Africa, leading from Red Sea up to Dead Sea, the Jordan Valley, and Sea of Galilee.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Prehistoric settlement in coastal Cilicia, southeast Turkey (Anatolia), the site of the Mound of Gözlüküle (Gözlü Kale). It was occupied from the 5th-1st millennia BC with a sequence paralleling that of Mersin. This included a late Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Early Bronze Age, Middle Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age, Iron Age, and early medieval period occupations. . Tarsus' prosperity between the 5th century BC and the Arab invasions in the 7th century AD was based primarily on its fertile soil, its position at the southern end of the Cilician Gates, and the great harbor of Rhegma, which enabled Tarsus to establish strong connections with the Levant.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Site where a group of Chichimec, under the leadership of Xólotl, succeeded in gaining power in the Valley of Mexico, establishing their center there in 1224, now the northern suburbs of Mexico City. Its large pyramid is best surviving example of pyramids of Chichimec and Aztectype and it is thought to resemble the Great Temple at Tenochitlán. It was covered at 52-year intervals by at least six successive pyramid and temple buildings. It consists of two parallel stairways leading to two temples on the top of the one structure, with traces of Talud-Tablero style architecture, indicating Teotihuacan occupation in Classic Period. An altar decorated with a skull and crossbones motif is similar to one at Tula.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Traditional style of roofing used in many parts of the world at different times whereby bundles of organic material such as reed, straw, heather, turf, or ling are tied together over a wooden frame with the long axis of the plant fiber parallel to the slope of the roof to provide good weather-proofing.
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: The plane parallel to the stance of a pot or perpendicular to the longitudinal axis in a piece of wood.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A cross section where the cut is made parallel to the base line of the artifactdrawing and the outline of the section keeps the front surface at the top
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Block of baked clay weighing around 1kg with a triangularoutline and parallel sides cross-section with perforations through the corners for attachment to the warp threads on an upright loom during textile production. Generally later Bronze Age and Iron Age in date in the British Isles, these objects provide some of the earliest evidence of weaving.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Important Early Eastern Polynesian settlement on Huahine, Society Islands, c 800 AD. There are rich organic and non-organic remains of the period c 850-1100. The material culture has close parallels with that of the first Maori Patu settlers of New Zealand.
CATEGORY: feature DEFINITION: A Roman defensive rampart of an earthworks, made as a defense obstacle around a camp or fort. It is also the name of the flat-bottomed ditch with two parallel walls running south of Hadrian's Wall in northern Britain.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Site of a number of gravel pits in West Middlesex, England, with Lower Palaeolithic artifacts -- from Clactonian tools to Acheulian bifaces and Levallois flakes and cores. It is dated to c 250,000-200,000 years ago. There are also Middle Palaeolithic / Mousterian levels with bout coupé-like bifaces. The sequence is one of the longest of its kind in Europe and in part closely parallels Swanscombe.