(View exact match)parchmentCATEGORY: term; language
DEFINITION: Writing material made from the skin of calves, sheep, or goat, which gradually replaced papyrus during the late Roman empire, resulting in the book (codex) replacing the scroll. The name apparently derives from the ancient Greek city of Pergamum (in Turkey), where parchment is said to have been invented in the 2nd century BC. It is less fragile, and could also be reused after the original text had been erased by scraping (called palimpsests). The finer kind of parchment known as vellum is from the skins of calves, kids, and dead-born lambs. In the 4th century AD, vellum or parchment as a material and the codex as a form became dominant, although there are later examples of rolls, and papyrus was occasionally used for official documents until the 10th century. Paper then took over from 14th century.parchment wareCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A range of tableware, mostly bowls, in pale fabrics with simple red-brown painted decoration that was popular in Britain in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD.
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Crambeck wareCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A type of pottery made at Crambeck, North Yorkshire, which was widely distributed across the north of England and North Wales in the second half of the 4th century AD. Common types include cream-colored mortaria and parchment wares, imitation Samian forms, and a range of lead-grey kitchen wares.PergamumSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Pergamon
DEFINITION: Capital of a Hellenistic kingdom of the same name in Anatolia (Turkey) dating to 283-133 BC. The site is fine example of Hellenistic town planning with buildings terraced up to the palace and the acropolis. There was monumental planning and design and sculpture in baroque style culminating in frieze of Altar of Zeus. In 133 BC, Attalus III bequeathed his kingdom to Rome, who made it the province of Asia. The Attalid kings had invested much of their wealth in Pergamum, making it a center for literature, the arts, and the sciences; their library rivaled Alexandria with 200,000 volumes (many written on parchment). The Attalid dynasty fortress and palace stood on the peak of the hill, while the town itself occupied the lower slopes. Under the Roman Empire the city was situated on the plain below. In the Roman period there was extensive new building and rebuilding. Hadrian restyled the round, domed Temple of Asklepios and built a temple of Trajan.St. Gall PlanCATEGORY: language
DEFINITION: An important Carolingian document, probably formulated after the Council of Inden in 816 and then sent by the Abbot of Reichenau to Abbot Gozbert of St. Gall. The plan, written in ink on parchment, is an architect's drawing for the rebuilding of the monastic complex. The St. Gall Plan epitomizes an ideal 'modern' Carolingian monastic unit, and although it was never fully realized at St. Gall it remains an important source of reference for architectural historians and archaeologists.albarelloSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: pl. albarelli
DEFINITION: A late medieval (15th-18th centuries) Near East, Spanish, and Italian apothecary pottery jar. It was made in the form known as majolica or with a fine tin glaze over typically blue designs imitating the forms of Arabic script. Its basic shape was cylindrical but incurved and wide-mouthed for holding, using, and shelving. They average 7 inches high (18 cm) and are free of handles, lips, and spouts. A piece of paper or parchment was tied around the rim as a cover for the jar. Drug jars from Persia, Syria, and Egypt were introduced into Italy by the 15th century and luster-decorated pots influenced by the Moors in Spain entered through Sicily. Spanish and Islamic influence is apparent in the colors used in the decoration of early 15th-century Italian albarellos, which are often blue on white. A conventional oakleaf and floral design, combining handsomely with heraldic shields or with scrollwork and an inscribed label, frequently occurs. Geometric patterns are also common. By the end of the 18th century, albarellos had yielded to other containers. Albarelli have occasionally been found in Britain and the Netherlands.illuminated manuscriptCATEGORY: language
DEFINITION: Handwritten books that were decorated with gold or silver, brilliant colors, or elaborate designs or miniature pictures. Though various Islamic societies practiced this art, Europe had the longest and probably the most highly developed tradition of illuminating manuscripts. These medieval handwritten books were usually done on parchment or vellum. The illustrations themselves fall into several categories: miniatures (small paintings incorporated into the text of border, or occupying a whole page), decorated monograms or initial letters, and decorative borders. Before the year 1000, the books most commonly illustrated in this way were gospels or psalters. The origins of manuscript illumination are thought to lie in 5th century Coptic Egypt. It is now thought that illuminated manuscripts were relatively few in number even at the time they were produced. Very few religious or classical texts survive. After the development of printing in Europe in the second half of the 15th century, illumination was superseded by printed illustrations.libraryCATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: Collection of books used for reading or study, or the building or room in which such a collection is kept. The origin of libraries came in the 3rd millennium BC, when records on clay tablets were stored in a temple in the Babylonian town of Nippur. In the 7th century BC, the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal assembled and organized a collection of records, of which some 20,000 tablets and fragments have survived. The first libraries as repositories of books were those of the Greek temples and those established in conjunction with the Greek schools of philosophy in the 4th century BC. Important libraries of the ancient world were those of Aristotle, the great Library of Alexandria with its thousands of papyrus and vellum scrolls, its rival at Pergamum that included many works on parchment, the Bibliotheca Ulpia of Rome, and the Imperial Library at Byzantium set up by Constantine the Great in the 4th century AD. China also has a long tradition of record keeping and book collecting, in private libraries as well as in centralized government libraries. Extant Greek and Roman literary works were preserved alongside the early Christian literature in Constantine's library and, beginning in the 2nd century, in libraries of monasteries. The loss of the Great Library at Alexandria, which was burned to the ground in the late third century AD, was devastating. The Alexandria library had probably been established by Ptolemy I Soter (305-285 BC), who also founded the Museum ('shrine of the Muses'), initially creating both institutions as annexes to his palace. Later in the Ptolemaic period, another large library was created, probably within the Alexandria serapeum, but this too was destroyed in 391 AD.scrollCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A roll of paper or parchment, especially with writing upon it.stylusSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: stilus; pl. styli, styluses
CATEGORY: artifact; language
DEFINITION: Pointed writing instrument made from a variety of materials: reed stem, bone, ivory, or metal (iron, bronze, silver). The sharpened implement is shaped like a pen with a wedge-shaped tip and one end flattened like a spatula; the latter served either to spread the wax on a writing tablet or to erase by smoothing. The stylus was used in ancient times as a tool for writing on parchment or papyrus. The early Greeks incised letters on wax-covered boxwood tablets using a stylus. A stylus was also used for impressing cuneiform writing into wet clay tablets, which were then baked.vellumCATEGORY: artifact; language
DEFINITION: Fine parchment from the skins of calves, a term that was broadened in its usage to include any especially fine parchment. In the 4th century AD vellum or parchment as a material and the codex as a form became dominant.