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Adena point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A widespread Native American culture of the Early Woodland period in the Ohio Valley (US) and named after the Adena Mounds of Ross County. It is known for its ceremonial and complex burial practices involving the construction of mounds and by a high level of craftwork and pottery. It is dated from as early as c. 1250 BC and flourished between c. 700-200 BC. It is ancestral to the Hopewell culture in that region. It was also remarkable for long-distance trading and the beginnings of agriculture. The mounds (e.g. Grave Creek Mound) are usually conical and they became most common around 500 BC. There was also cremation. Artifacts include birdstones, blocked-end smoking pipes, boatstones, cord-marked pottery, engraved stone tablets, and hammerstones. Artifacts distinctive of Adena include a tubular pipe style, mica cutouts, copper bracelets and cutouts, incised tablets, stemmed projectile points, oval bifaces, concave and reel-shaped gorgets, and thick ceramic vessels decorated with incised geometric designs.
Adena-Rossville point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: Contracting stemmed point with a narrower section at the base than the main part of the point.
Avonlea point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Early bow and arrow projectile point 100 AD-500 AD.
Ayampitin point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Bifacially worked stone missile tips of willow-leaf outline found among archaic hunter-gatherer communities of the Peruvian highlands and coasts in 9000-7000 BC. Typical examples are 60-70mm long.
Bondi point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A small, asymmetric-backed point, named for Bondi, Sydney, Australia, which is a component of the Australian Small Tool Tradition. It is usually less than 5 cm long and is sometimes described as a backed blade. Some examples suggest that the points were set in wooden handles or shafts. It occurs on coastal and inland sites across Australia, usually south of the Tropic of Capricorn. The oldest examples come from southeast Australia, dating from about 3000 bc, and the most recent are 300-500 years old. The Bondi point was not being used by Aborigines when Europeans arrived.
Cahokia point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: This side notched , triangular arrow point has straight sides to slightly concave basal edges. A few may have slightly convex basal edges. In a addition to the side notches on the blade, usually just above the primary side notches, or it may be serrated. Points with two or three notches are the most common. The Cahokia point was named by Edward G. Scully {1951 :15 } for examples found at the Cahokia site in St. Clair and Madison counties in Illinois. An early Mississippian point dating in the A.D. 900 to A.D. 1300 range.
Cheddar point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Type of later Upper Palaeolithic flint tool found in the British Isles, named after examples found in the Cheddar Gorge, Somerset, England. Made on a relatively narrow flint blade, both ends are worked to produce an elongated trapezoidal form with the long side of the blade left unworked and the shorter side blunted. Possibly used as knife blades.
Chindadn point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A small teardrop-shaped bifacial point found in central Alaska and dating to c 12,000-10,000 bp; they are diagnostic of the Nenana complex.
Clovis point
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Clovis spear point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A distinctive, fluted, lanceolate (leaf-shaped) stone projectile point characteristic of the early Paleo-Indian period, c 10,000-9000 BC, and often found in association with mammoth bones. It is named for Clovis, New Mexico, where it was first found. The concave-based projectile point has a longitudinal groove on each face running from the base to a point not more than halfway along the tool. The base of a Clovis point is concave and the edge of the base usually blunted through grinding, probably to ensure that the thongs, attaching the point to the projectile, were not cut. It is assumed to have been a spear because of its size; the length of points varies from 2-4 in. (7-12 cm), and their widest width is 1-1 1/2 in (3-4 cm). Clovis points and the artifacts associated with them (grouped together as the Llano complex) are among the earliest tools known from the New World and have been found over most of North America, with a few outliers as far south as Mexico and Panama. It is the earliest projectile point of the Big Game Hunting tradition of North America. From these points came the later, more sophisticated points, such as the Folsom.
Creswell point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Type of later Upper Palaeolithic flint tool found in the British Isles, named after examples found at Creswell Crags, Derbyshire, England. Made on a relatively narrow flint blade, one end is worked to produce a slightly elongated trapezoidal form with the long side of the blade left unworked and the shorter side blunted. Possibly used as knife blades
Eastgate point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Type of projectile head developed c. AD 500 as an arrowhead during the late Archaic Stage in the Great Basin and western interior of North America.
Eden point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Eden points are known for their exceptionally well done parallel pressure flaking and diamond cross-section. The people that made them were hunting large animals like bison. Eden points were first discovered in Yuma County, Colorado blow-outs during the 1930's but none were found in situ until the spring of 1940 when Harold J. Cook spent several days digging in a site discovered by O. M. Finley. The Eden point was named by H. M. Wormington after the town of Eden, Wyoming. The Eden type site was named the Finley site in honor of O. M. Finley who discovered it.
Elko point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Large, roughly triangular-shaped chipped stone points with concave, straight, or slightly concave bases. Two main forms are known: those with corner notches on the base and those with ?ears' on the base. Dated to the period 1300 BC to AD 700 among Desert Archaic Stage communities of the Great Basin and western interior of North America.
Folsom point
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Folsom projectile point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A distinctive Palaeoindian fluted projectile point with a single flute on each face and fine pressure flaking. Found in association in sites around Folsom, New Mexico, from c 9000-8000 BC (alternately 11,000-10,200 BP), they differ from Clovis points in the length of the flute, which extends over most of the point's side. Folsom points are smaller, with their widest dimension near the middle rather than towards the base; more concave base than Clovis, and edges of Folsom points were retouched.
Fulton turkey tail point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A leaf-shaped side-notched point - with notches chipped into each side of the base to form a stem below the main part of the point, generally 3 3/4-6 inches long.
Gombe Point
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Kalina Point
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A site overlooking the Congo River in Kinshasa, where the first stratigraphic succession of stone industries in central Africa was described. The are considered local variants of the Lupemban-Tshitolian sequence of west-central Africa. Although apparently stratified, the succession is now believed to have suffered a considerable degree of post-depositional mixing.
Hardaway point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Bifacially worked chipped stone projectile point with a triangular outline, a slightly hollow base, and a side notch towards the base on either side. Named after the construction company that used the site on which many examples were found by Joffre Coe in the 1950s, Hardaway points are thought to represent a stylistic variation within the larger DALTON TRADITION dating to the period c.8500-7000 BC.
Hell Gap point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Bifacially worked chipped stone projectile points of the Plano Tradition with a broad pointed top set on a straight-sided trapezoidal body. The base is narrow and straight. Used by later Palaeo-Indian cultures of the North America Plains in the period around 7500 BC. Experiments show that these points were probably spearheads and fully capable of penetrating the hide and rib cage of large beasts such as bison.
Hopewell point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Distinctive broad-bladed points of an agricultural subculture of the Woodland stage complex settling in Ohio and Illinois around 100 BC and lasting to 500 AD
Humbolt Series point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Bifacially worked chipped stone points of lanceolate outline manufactured by Archaic Stage communities on the Great Plains and western interior of North America in the period c.3000 BC to AD 700. There are numerous variations in style and in size, but most have a hollow base and none have side notches.
Jermanovice point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Laurel-leaf points, flaked completely on one side but bifacially only on the lower part of the blade and on the bulb of percussion. Characteristic of the Upper Palaeolithic Jermanovice Culture in Poland.
Kauri Point
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A Maori Pa near Tauranga, New Zealand, which has revealed several phases of Classic Maori ditch and bank fortification from c 1500-1750 AD. The interior of the pa contained large numbers of sweet potato storage pits. The swamp preserved many artifacts, including wooden combs.
Kimberley point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A pressure-flaked bifacial point with serrated margins and long shallow surface scar beds, found in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and neighboring areas of the Northern Territory and northwest Queensland. South of the Kimberleys the point was a trade item and was used as a surgical knife. The points were made at the time of European contact, when bottle glass and porcelain were adapted for the industry.
La Mouillah point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A point like a piquant-triedre except that it is backed and the tip then twisted off so the microburin scar forms an extended point
Le Croy point
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: LeCroy
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: An Early Archaic bifurcate, chipped-stone projectile point of the US Southeast, small- or medium-sized with short triangular blades. They are dated c 6500-6000 BC and found in Ohio and Tennessee river drainages and north to the Great Lakes.
Lerma point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A projectile point made before 7000 BC in Tamaulipas and Puebla, Mexico. It is laurel leaf-shaped and similar to those found in the Great Basin of the U.S.
Levanna projectile point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Levanna projectile points are usually associated with Late Woodland and Contact Period occupations in southern New England (ca. 700-300 Years B.P.). Common material types associated with this point include quartz, quartzite, hornfels, and basalt. Non-local cherts were also used in the manufacture of this point type. The Levanna point type is characterized by the equilateral triangular form and concave base.
Maros point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: Small hollow-based stone projectile points, often with serrated edge-retouch, characteristic of a mature phase of the Toalian industry of southwestern Sulawesi, India, c 6000 BC into the 1st millennium BC. They were part of a mid-Holocene stone flake and blade industry.
McKean point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Bifacially worked chipped stone projectile points characteristic of the McKean Complex of the middle Archaic Stage in the Great Plains of North America during the period c.2900-1000 BC. Lanceolate in outline with curved sides and a hollow base these points were probably spearheads used in bison hunting.
Mladec point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A point made from bone, antler, or ivory with an elongated oval shape. It has been found at Aurignacian sites in central Europe.
Morrow Mountain point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Middle Archaic bifacially worked chipped stone projectile points found in eastern parts of North America and dating to the period c.6000-4000 BC. Characteristically, the points are triangular in outline with slightly flared sides towards the base, and a small rounded tang on the base.
Otter Creek point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Archaic Stage large bifacially worked chipped stone projectile points with a side notch found in northeastern parts of North America and dating to the period c.4500-2600 BC.
Ounan Point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: Pointed bladelet with basal stem used in North African Late Pleistocene and Holocene, such as in Ounanian and Early Neolithic industries of the Eastern Sahara.
Paijan point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Bifacially worked chipped stone points of triangular outline with a small stem or tang at the base. Characteristic of the Archaic Stage paiján Tradition of South America in the period 9000-7000 BC.
Pinto point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Bifacially worked chipped stone projectile point characteristic of the Pinto Basin Phase of western North America 5000-1900 BC. Triangular in outline, Pinto points are shouldered towards the bottom of the long side to produce a straight stem; they have a hollow base.
Pirri point
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Pirri culture, pirri point
CATEGORY: lithics; culture
DEFINITION: An Australian stone tool type, a symmetrical leaf-shaped point, up to 7 cm long, unifacially flaked all over its dorsal surface. The striking platform and bulb of percussion are sometimes removed to produce a rounded, thinned butt. Pirri points have been found distributed widely in inland Australia from South Australia to the Northern Territory and northwestern Australia. A component of the Australian Small Tool Tradition, the Pirri point dates from about 3000 BC. The aboriginal term pirri means 'wood-engraving tool'.
Plainview point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Bifacially worked chipped stone projectile points found in central areas of North America in the period around 8000 BC. Similar in form to CLOVIS points although lacking the distinctive flutes of Clovis and perhaps pre-dating them in some areas.
Plano point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: Name of projectile points developed out of the Clovis and Folsom points of the Big Game Hunting tradition, after 8000 BC in North America. Unfluted, large lanceolate stone forms were made by pressure flaking techniques. The two main types of Plano points are Plainview of 7800-5100 BC and Parallel which are longer, more slender, and more finely made.
Poverty Point
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A site in northern Louisiana with a spectacular group of late Archaic sites, c 1300-400 BC in the Woodland stage. The site consisted of six concentric octagons, each formed of earthen ridges that seem to have been used as dwelling areas. There are also two mounds, and from the larger one the vernal and autumnal equinoxes can be observed directly over the center of the village. Artifacts include numerous clay balls used for cooking in lieu of heated stones, microliths, stone smoking pipes and vessels, clay figurines, and fiber-tempered pottery sherds. The clay balls are found in thousands, both here and at other sites in the Lower Mississippi valley. A high level of social organization is indicated by the presence of earthworks like that at Poverty Point, but there is very little evidence of the practice of agriculture.
Poverty Point projectile point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Projectile points, especially types with narrow stem-body junctures, from Poverty Point, a site is located just west of the Mississippi River in northeastern Louisiana. The site is significant because its earthworks are the oldest large aboriginal constructions known in mainland North America. They were built between 1730 and 1350 B.C. by Terminal Archaic hunter-gatherers
Rosegate series point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Bifacially worked chipped stone projectile points characteristic of Archaic communities living in the Great Basin of North America in the period AD 700-1300. Distinguished by having a triangular outline, small corner notches and a basal tang. Once known as Rose Spring and East Gate types, they are now recognized as part of a single series.
Sandia point
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sandia projectile point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: type site for a tanged and unfluted projectile point in New Mexico's Sandia Mountains. This cave has yielded artifacts of the so-called ""Sandia Man"" (25,000 BC). In Pueblo mythology the Sandias were sacred, marking the southern boundary of the Tiwa-speaking Indian territory. Sandia points were stratified below Folsom points but the radiocarbon dates of pre-20,000 BC are often discounted, the true date probably falling in the range 12000-8000 BC, overlapping with Clovis. Associated fauna of bison, mammoth, and mastodon suggested contemporaneity with the Llano complex. Sandia type I has a lanceolate blade without fluting and without concave base of Clovis/Folsom and a shoulder to one side of the base of the blade, suggesting knife use. Sandia Type II has rounded base.
St. Albans point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Bifacially worked chipped stone projectile points with corner notches, manufactured by early Archaic Stage communities in eastern parts of North America around 7500 BC.
Swiderian point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: Type of stone point made on a blade and having a stemmed base flaked on both sides. It is characteristic of the Swiderian industry of Poland (Upper Palaeolithic, c 11,000-9000 BP).
attribute pointer
CATEGORY: database design
DEFINITION: In relational databases, a field in a "many" file that makes a relation with the key attribute of a "one" file. "Site number" could be an attribute pointer in an artifact cataloguing file and refer to the key attribute "Site number" in another file "Sites" with a unique record for each site.
barbed point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A bone or antler point with rows of barbs, usually on one side only.
bipoint
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A bone or stone artifact pointed at both ends.
birdpoint
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: bird point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A smaller arrowhead used by Native Americans to kill small game such as the rabbit, waterfowl, and birds
characteristic points
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Points on the contours of a vessel silhouette or vertical section marking angles (corner points) or curvature (inflection points), used in one system of classifying vessel shapes
critical point
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: critical moisture content
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: The point in the drying of a clay article at which shrinkage water has been removed, shrinkage has largely ceased, and the piece is rigid and leather-hard
dart point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A flaked projectile point designed for use as a tip for a throwing stick dart.
datum point
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: datum
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: The point on an archaeological site from which all measurements of level and contour are taken. It is the reference point used for vertical and horizontal measurement. It can be chosen at random, at a place from which all or most of the site can be seen, and should be tied in to the national standard, usually sea level, by reference to the nearest survey point. Depths of features, of objects found in features, or simply contours, are leveled in with reference to the datum point, and are usually recorded as being a certain height 'below local datum'. Should variations in contour or the extent of the site prove too great for a single datum point, another can be used as long as it is leveled in with reference to the first. A site grid and excavation units are laid out or measured with reference to this point.
fishtail point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A fluted and stemmed, fishlike stone tool of South America, dating to c 11,000-8000 bc. The complex has some similarities to the Clovis of North America and is representative of the Palaeoindian time in South America.
fluted lanceolate projectile point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A stemless point with rounded edges, a channel chipped into the spine, and no differently shaped projection at the base.
fluted point
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: fluted projectile point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A projectile point with a distinctive longitudinal groove left after removal of a channel flake; a long, medial channel notched to the base of a flake. The channeled flake is removed from one or both faces by striking the specially prepared base sharply with a piece of wood or bone. The sharp ridges of the flutes were ground smooth near the base of the point, to prevent them from cutting the bindings when the point was inserted into a notched foreshaft. These points have extreme symmetry, careful flaking, and the removal of a long, parallel and shallow flake from one or both sides. Fluted points are characteristic of the Palaeoindian peoples of North America such as the Clovis and Folsom projectile points.
foliated point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Elliptical shaped points, thin in section and pointed at both ends. Reminiscent of Solutrean ?laurel leaves' but form part of the Mousterian assemblages of central Europe
gem point
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: gempoint
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A projectile point made out of agate, jasper, or another colorful stone
laurel-leaf point
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: laurel-leaf blade
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A distinctive long, thin leaf-shaped Solutrean flake tool made with delicate workmanship. The largest was found from Volgu, France. It was made during the Upper Palaeolithic in Europe.
meadowood point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A triangular side-notched point - with notches chipped into each side of the base to form a stem below the main part of the point, generally 2 1/2 inches long.
midpoint
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: In lithics, an imaginary point a the intersection of the Midline and the transverse line.
penknife point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Type of late Upper Palaeolithic flint tool found in northwest Europe. Made on fairly broad blades, these tools are characterized by a straight unworked edge along one side, a curved distal end, and a lightly retouched edge parallel to the unworked side.
point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A category of stone artifacts consisting of pointed tools flaked on one or both sides. A weapon or tool having such a part and used for stabbing or piercing, e.g. arrowhead, spearhead.
point bar
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: A channel bar of mud to coarse conglomerate forming on the convex side of a channel bend due to reduced flow velocity. This landform is the most common type of lateral accretion; a depositional alluvial landform on and behind the convex bank of meandering streams. It is formed and modified as the stream floods and the meander bend moves. Over a period of years point bars expand laterally as the opposite bank is continually eroded backward. The bars progressively spread across the valley bottom, usually as a thin sheet of sand or gravel containing layers that dip into the channel bottom.
point counting
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: Categorizing individual grains of sediment exposed by thin sectioning by size and sometimes by shape and then counting.
point of percussion
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: The point at which a core is struck with a hammerstone in order to remove a flake. The point of percussion is a visible excrescence on the core, a small scar on the struck flake. The bulb of percussion surrounds it.
point provenience
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: The location (provenience) of a specific object at an exact point on a site.
point-pattern analysis
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A basic form of spatial analysis that allows archaeologists to identify concentrations of material, trends in artifact deposition, etc. by examining random patterns.
point-plot system
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: A basic method of recording context where every artifact or ecofact is individually recorded (point-plotted) according to its horizontal and vertical location.
pointillé
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A type of decoration by marking with dots
poison point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: An arrowhead used not only to pierce the hide of an animal, but also to poison it; most were notchless and triangular so that the shaft of the arrow could detach easily and remain in the wound after being soaked in snake venom or decayed meat, etc.
pre-projectile point complex
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A term applied to a complex consisting of the earliest archaeological evidence of humans on the North American continent. It is characterized by the lack of stone projectile points, which can be dated.
projectile point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: The general term for the stone, bone, or wooden tip of a projectile - the point that is attached to a weapon such as an arrow, dart, lance, or spear. Among such points are arrowheads, which are usually of small size, and dart and spearpoints, which may be quite large. This tool is valuable in reconstruction of culture history.
serrated point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: An arrowhead with a serrated point, the edges with uniform small indentations in a sawtoothlike pattern
shouldered point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: Type of stone point made on a blade, with a notch on one side of the base and flaked partly or wholly on both sides. Shouldered points are characteristic of some Upper Palaeolithic cultures of Europe, such as the Solutrean, Magdalenian, and Eastern Gravettian.
side-notched point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: Type of stone point which is chipped on both faces and having notches on both sides near the base. They are characteristic of the Northern Archaic tradition in North America.
spearpoint
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: The tip of a projectile, used for throwing, thrusting, or stabbing.
stemmed point
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: notchless point, shouldered point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A projectile or blade that has a stem which was designed for hafting or holding. A projectile or blade that has a stem which was designed for hafting or holding.
tanged point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A projectile point of flint or stone, typically of triangular or leaf-shaped form, with a small projection at the base for the secure attachment to a wooden shaft.
tanged point culture
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A term once used for any of a series of cultures of the Postglacial period whose tool kits include small tanged or shouldered points, e.g. the Ahrensburgian and Hamburgian.
unit datum point
CATEGORY: measure
DEFINITION: The control point from which all measurements in a specific excavation unit are made.
warpoint
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Small, late prehistoric general-purpose projectile points with triangular configuration, no notches or stem
willow-leaf point
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: Late Solutrean flake tool - slim, with rounded ends and retouching on one side only - of extremely fine workmanship.

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