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Northern Black Polished Ware
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Northern black polished ware; NBP, NBPW
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: A fine gray metallic ware with a glossy black surface characteristic of the Iron Age civilization of northern and central India, dating to c 500-100 BC. It is a hard, wheelmade ware, mainly bowls and dishes. The surface is made with an alkali flux and fired in a reducing atmosphere. It succeeds Painted Grey Ware in the Ganges sequence and is the main pottery type associated with the Ganges Civilization. It characterizes the urban kingdoms of early historical India.
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: Any edge or surface abrasion and gloss that increases from tool use. It is sometimes evident only when stone tools are studied under high-powered microscopy.
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A shiny surface that often occurs macroscopically or microscopically near the used edges of lithic flakes or blades as a result of use on particular materials.
polished axhead
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: An axhead of flint or other stone, commonly used for Neolithic types
polished stone adze
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A chopping or cutting tool, beveled on one side and characteristic of the Neolithic in Southeast Asia. It appeared as early as 6000 BC in some places and continued in use into the 1st millennium AD in places with little metal. There were generally flaked to shape from a large core, then ground and polished. Traded forms were roughed-out blanks that would be polished later. The form was a simple quadrangle. By the Late Neolithic a decrease in the proportion of stone axes to adzes suggests the increasing dominance of permanent agriculture.
polished tool
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: ground stone tool
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: Any artifact made by the pecking or grinding of hard stones. The Neolithic Period was the first widespread used of polished rock tools, notably axes, with the adoption of a new technique of stoneworking. The revolutionary method used to create polished tools was essentially a finishing process that slicked a chipped tool by rubbing it on or with an abrasive rock to remove the scars of the chipping process that had produced the rough tool. Not only was the edge keener, but the smooth sides of the edge also promoted deeper penetration, with the added advantage of easier tool extraction from a deep wedged cut.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Polished bone used to burnish objects e.g. pottery.
red polished ware
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: A fine red ware with red or orange slip that is highly burnished. It was made in southern Asia in the first three centuries AD. It is often thought to be an imitation of the Roman Arrentine ware. The characteristic and most widely dispersed type of pottery of the Roman Empire was the red, polished Arretine ware. Most Inca pottery is also red polished ware.
sickle polish
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A clear polish forming along the edges of flakes and blades that are used to cut grass and other long-stemmed plants.

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