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Frankfort, Henri (1897-1954)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: A Dutch-American archaeologist who completed a well-documented reconstruction of Early Dynastic Mesopotamian culture, established the relation between Egypt and Mesopotamia, and discovered much new information on both civilizations. A historian, he worked at Abydos, Amarna, Armant in Egypt and in Iraq as head of the University of Chicago's Diyala project. He published important works on pottery and cylinder seals as well as a study of kingship, religious attitudes, and art in western Asia and Egypt.
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A Germanic-speaking people who invaded the western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD. Dominating present-day northern France, Belgium, and western Germany, the Franks established the most powerful Christian kingdom of early medieval western Europe. The name France (Francia) is derived from their name. They originally settled to the east of the Rhine and expanded west from the later 3rd and early 4th centuries. The Frankish kingdom was increased in size by Clovis (481-511) to occupy much of Roman Gaul, but reached its greatest extent under Charlemagne. The archaeology of the Franks is best known from their cemeteries and the goods interred within them. Many Roman manufacturing industries were preserved by the Franks, but they introduced Germanic craftsmanship, arts, and building techniques.
Libby, Willard Frank (1908-1980)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: An American physicist and chemist who received the Nobel Prize for developing the radiocarbon-dating technique.
DEFINITION: The position held by an individual on the basis of his status within a society where statuses are not all equal, but are graded into a hierarchical structure. A society with such inequalities of status is called a ranked society. A rank is a distinct class or level within a hierarchy.
rank-size rule
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: rank-size analysis
DEFINITION: A general relationship between the size of a settlement and its rank within a set of settlements. If sites are ranked in order of size on a logarithmic scale, the population of the Nth rank city will be 1/Nth the size of the largest; thus the 3rd site will be 1/3 the size of the largest. The rule works best in areas of complex economic and political organization, with comparatively long histories of urban development. It has been suggested that this relationship represents a natural balance of settlement growth. Roman walled towns fit the rule well. However, this is often not the case because in many newer, developing countries the chief city or capital is larger than expected (primate city) because of historic factors.
ranked society
DEFINITION: A society in which all statuses are not equal, but rather there exists a hierarchical structure. There is unequal access to the higher-status categories, and thus many people who are qualified for high-status positions are unable to achieve them. In these societies, individuals are ranked vis-a-vis one another in terms of kinship status and social prestige, which are largely ascribed. Fewer positions of authority exist than there are individuals capable of filling them.

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