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Abu Salabikh, Tell
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A site of southern Mesopotamia with evidence of the Early Dynastic III and Uurk times. Many texts, including the earliest-known literary works of Sumerian literature. I.J. Gelb proposed the name 'Kish civilization' to identify this culture of the mid-3rd millennium.
Acropole of Susa
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A site in southwestern Iran including a large cemetery and platform from Susa's initial occupation, dating to the end of the 5th millennium BC. The site is divided into Acropole 1 and 2; Acropole 1 has provided a sequence of 27 levels up to the Akkadian period. Some levels contain evidence of the development of writing: tablets marked with numbers, tokens in envelopes, and tablets of the Proto-Elamite script.
ad sanctos
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: Describes the custom or arranging to be buried in or beside a church. Around 313 AD when Constantine's edict granted tolerance to Christians, miniature temples were erected over tombs of martyrs. This was the start of funerary basilicas adjacent to towns from the 4th century onward. It was believed that burial near the tombs of saints would guarantee protection in the next world. This gave rise to the custom of burial in or close to a church.
Altar de Sacrificios
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: The Maya site at the junction of the Pasion and Chixoy Rivers in Peten, Guatemala, occupied from c 1000 BC (Middle Pre-Classic) until c 950-1000 AD (beginning of Postclassic). Early remains are of Xe pottery and formal architecture (thatch-and-pole) date to c 500 BC. The site flourished due to its position on water routes and eventually plazas, a ball court, and temple pyramid were built. There is evidence of intrusion of a group (probably Putun) around 800-850 AD and a second invasion c 910. After this, the site declined in power and was eventually abandoned.
Alto Salaverry
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A Late Preceramic site on the north coast of Peru with the first sunken circular structure, which eventually was used in other ceremonial sites of the Initial Period.
Amsadong
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A Korean Chulmun culture site near Seoul with pithouses, net weights and sinkers, querns, dating to 4490-1510 BC. It is the type-site of the Classic Chulmun pottery.
Anasazi
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A major cultural tradition of canyon dwellers found in southwestern United States between 100-1600 AD -- mainly in the four corners area of northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, southeastern Utah, and southwestern Colorado. These Native Americans began settlements with the cultivation of maize. Pottery was unknown at the beginning, but basketry was well developed, hence the name Basket Maker" is given to these early stages. By the sixth century there were large villages of pit houses with farming and pottery and it evolved into the full Anasazi tradition. The first pueblos and kivas were constructed and fine painted pottery made. The next few centuries (the Pueblo I-III periods) were a time of expansion during which some of the most famous towns were founded (Chaco Canyon) and fine polychrome wares produced. At this time the Mogollon people to the south adopted the Anasazi way of life and their Hohokam neighbors were also influenced perhaps suggesting that the Anasazi actually migrated to these areas. In such an arid environment farming was always vulnerable to fluctuations in climate and rainfall and these factors caused considerable population movement and relocation of settlements during 11th-13th centuries with the virtual abandonment of Chaco Canyon in 1150 and the plateau heartland by 1300. From 1300 until the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century the Anasazi culture and population dwindled and the homeland in northern Arizona was abandoned. Then with the encroachment of nomadic Apache and Navajo tribes and with the arrival of Europeans from the south and east Anasazi territory decreased further. However some pueblos have continued to be occupied until the present day. The generally accepted chronological framework of three Basketmaker and five Pueblo stages was first proposed at the 1927 Pecos Conference. Although exact links are uncertain it is clear that modern Pueblo Indian people are descended from Anasazi ancestors. The name Anasazi is derived from a Navajo word meaning "enemy ancestors" or "early ancestors" or "old people"."
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
CATEGORY: language
DEFINITION: A chronological account of events in Anglo-Saxon and Norman England, a compilation of seven surviving annals that is the primary source of the early history of England. Believed to have been started around 870, during the reign of King Alfred (871-899), it was mostly finished by 891 though further accounts were added until 1154. The annals were probably written in the monasteries of Abingdon, Canterbury, Peterborough, Winchester, and Worcester. They include vivid accounts of the Viking raids, Alfred's reign, and the period of anarchy under Stephen. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle also included the Venerable Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum" genealogies regnal and episcopal lists some northern annals and some sets of earlier West Saxon annals. The compiler also had access to a set of late 9th-century Frankish annals. The completeness and quality of the entries vary for different periods; the Chronicle has sparse coverage of the mid-10th century and the reign of Canute for example but is an excellent authority for the reign of Aethelred the Unready and from the reign of Edward the Confessor until the annal ends in 1154. The Chronicle survived in seven manuscripts (one of these being destroyed in the 18th century) and a fragment which are generally known by letters of the alphabet. The oldest the A version is written in one hand up till 891 and then continued in various hands. The B version and the C version are copies made at Abingdon from a lost archetype. B ends at 977 whereas C which is an 11th-century copy ends mutilated in 1066. The D version and the E version share many features. D which was written up until 1079 probably remained in the north whereas the archetype of E was taken south and continued at St. Augustine's Canterbury and was used by the scribe of manuscript F. The extant manuscript E is a copy made at Peterborough written in one stretch until 1121. It is the version that was continued longest. The F version is an abridgment in both Old English and Latin made in the late 11th or early 12th century based on the archetype of E but with some entries from A and it extends to 1058. The fragment H deals with 1113-14 and is independent of E."
Anglo-Saxons
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: The name of the combined cultures, the Angles and the Saxons, who left their North Sea coastal homelands in the 5th century AD and moved to eastern England after the breakdown of Roman Rule. The name derives from two specific groups --- the Angles of Jutland and the Saxons from northern Germany. Some other Germanic peoples took part in the migrations, such as the Jutes and the Frisians, and they are sometimes included under this name. The language, culture, and settlement pattern of medieval and later England can be traced directly to the Anglo-Saxons. The movement to the area probably began in the 4th century when barbarian Foederati went to serve in the Roman army in Britain. The main immigration began in the middle of the 5th century. Bede, writing in the early 8th century, gives the only reliable historical record for this period, though incidental information can be found in the Old English literature, particularly the poem of Beowulf. The English kingdoms took shape by the late 6th century. Archaeologically, there are three periods: the Early or Pagan Saxon period went until the general acceptance of Christianity in the mid-7th century; the Middle Saxon period until the 9th century, and the Late Saxon period which went up till the Norman invasion of 1066. The earliest period's remains are mainly burial deposits, often cremation in urns or by inhumation in cemeteries of trench graves or under barrows. Grave goods often include knives, sword or spear, shield boss, and brooches, buckles, beads, girdle-hangers, and pottery -- depending on the gender. Most archaeological evidence comes from the cemeteries, including the exceptional ship burial at Sutton Hoo. Churches were built and in the Middle and Late Saxon periods, including Bradford-Upon-Avon and Deerhurst. Important monuments of the Middle and Late Saxon periods are the royal palaces at Yeavering and Cheddar. The Late Saxon period, after the Viking invasions, saw the growth of the first towns in Britain since the Roman period, following the establishment of Burhs in response to the Scandinavian threat. There was wide-ranging trade, developed coinage, and improved pottery manufacture and metal-working. The separate British kingdoms (most important: Mercia, Northumbria and Wessex) eventually became a unified England with a capital at Winchester in Wessex. The Anglo-Saxons were responsible for the introduction of the English language and for the establishment of the settlement patterns of medieval England.
ansa
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: plural ansae
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Latin term for handle or anything handle-like, like an eyelet, haft, or a hole. Any vessel or vase with large ears or circular handles on the neck or body is said to have ansae.
ansa lunata
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A handle or handles on a vessel or vase going in two opposite directions or in two diverging projects. The term describes Terramara pottery of the Apennine culture and vessels of central Europe of the Middle to Late Bronze Age.
arbitrary sample unit
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: antonym: nonarbitrary sample unit
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A subdivision of data within a defined area of excavation, such as a sample unit that is defined by a site grid, which has no specific cultural relevance.
archaeological reconnaissance
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: archeological reconnaissance
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A systematic method of attempting to locate, identify, and record the distribution of archaeological sites on the ground by looking at areas' contrasts in geography and environment.
Argissa
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An important Neolithic site in Thessaly, northern Greece, which has given much information on the early phases of the Greek Aceramic Neolithic period. In the Argissa Magula near Larissa, there have been early prepottery Neolithic finds of probably the 6th millennium BC. Timber-framed huts consisted of shallow mud-walled pits that were likely roofed with branches. Obsidian was already being traded and flint tools were made. The earliest known domesticated cattle date from about 6000 BC at Argissa (and Nea Nikomedeia) in Greece, in association with cultivated einkorn, emmer wheat, and barley, millet, lentils. Sheep, goats, and pigs were also cultivate and kept. This site (along with Knossos) is also responsible for the earliest evidence of agriculture, soon after 7000 BC. The site was occupied throughout the Neolithic and well into the Bronze Age.
Asana
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A seasonal Preceramic site in the Andes of southern Peru dating to 7800 BC -- with possibly the earliest domestic structures in the Andean region. A ceremonial complex dating to 2660 BC with altars, clay-lined fire basins, and surface hearths has also been found.
basal edge
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: The proximal edge of a triangular or lanceolate projectile or stem of a stemmed type. There are eight major types of Basal Edges; Convex, Straight, Concave, Auriculate, Lobbed, Bifurcated, Fractured and Snapped.
basal grinding
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: The grinding of projectile points at their base and lower edges (so that the lashings will not be cut), a Paleo-Indian cultural practice. Basal thinning obtains the same result through the removal of small chips instead of grinding.
basal notch
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A flaking technique applied to accommodate hafting which involved the flaking of notches into the basal edge of a preform.
basal stones
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: The lowest stones in the continuous face of a wall.
basal thinning
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: The intentional removal of small longitudinal flakes from the base of a chipped stone projectile point or knife to facilitate hafting or produced to remove small, longitudinal flakes from the basal edge of a projectile point in order that the tool or point could be more easily hafted or held.
basal-looped spearhead
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Type of leaf-shaped socketed spearhead of the European middle Bronze Age which has two small holes or loops at the base of the blade, one either side of the socket. It is assumed that these were to assist in securing the metal spearhead to the wooden shaft, but they might also have been used to tie streamers of some kind to the top of the spear.
basalt
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: A type of very hard, dark, dense rock, igneous in origin, composed of augite or hornblende containing titaniferous magnetic iron and crystals of feldspar. It often lies in columnar strata, as at the Giant's Causeway in Ireland and Fingal's Cave in the Hebrides. It is greenish- or brownish-black and much like lava in appearance. It is also abundant in Egypt and Greece.
Basarabi culture
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: An Iron Age culture of cemeteries and settlement sites over much of Romania with its type site on the Danube. It is a local version of the Hallstatt culture, dating to 975-850 BC.
Bede the Venerable, Saint (672/3-735 AD)
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Baeda, Beda
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: Anglo-Saxon theologian, historian, and chronologist who is known for his prolific writings, including Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum" ("Ecclesiastical History of the English People") an important source for the history of the conversion to Christianity of the Anglo-Saxon tribes. Divided into five books it recorded (in Latin) events in Britain from the raids by Julius Caesar (55-54 BC) to the arrival in Kent (AD 597) of St. Augustine. For his sources Bede claimed the authority of ancient letters the "traditions of our forefathers and his own knowledge of contemporary events.
Bedsa
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A rock-cut Buddhist temple in Deccan, India that is dated 1st century BC. Its interior is elaborately decorated and the pillars have vase-shaped bases and bell-shaped capitals surmounted by sculpted human and animal groups. In front of the temple is a facade and a large entrance with decorated pillars.
Beni Hassan
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Bani Hasan, Beni Hasan
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A Middle Kingdom archaeological site, on the eastern bank of the Nile, Egypt, about 150 miles south of Cairo. The site is known for its rock-cut tombs of the 11th- and 12th-dynasty (2125-1795 BC) officials of the 16th Upper Egyptian (Oryx) nome, or province. Some of the 39 tombs are painted with scenes of daily life and important biographical texts. The governors of the nome, whose capital was Menat Khufu, ancestral home of the 4th-dynasty pharaohs, administered the eastern desert. The tomb of one, Khnumhotep II, contains a scene showing Semitic Bedouin merchants in richly colored garments entering Egypt. A rock-cut shrine of Pakhet, known as Speos Artemidos, built by Queen Hatshepsut and Thutmose III of the 18th dynasty, lies one mile north, in an ancient quarry, with a smaller shrine of Alexander II nearby. There are some small tombs dating back to the 6th Dynasty (2345-2181 BC).
biased sample
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: Sampling technique in which certain units have more chance of inclusion than others.
bog sacrifice
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: Human bodies, animals, and artifacts that were deliberately deposited in peat bogs and other watery places, most notably in Denmark, but also elsewhere in northwestern Europe.
bore sample
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: core sample
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: In dendrochronology, a straw-sized core removed from the bark to the pith of a tree to note and count each tree ring.
Boussargues
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A village site in France with pottery of the Chalcolithic Fontbouisse culture, c 2500 BC. There are apsidal (having one end rounded) houses surrounded by a wall with projecting huts or towers of dry stone.
Caesarea
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Cherchel, Caesarea Palaestinae, Caesarea Maritima, Straton's Tower, Strato's Tower
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An ancient port and administrative city of Palestine on the Mediterranean coast of present-day Israel. It is often called Caesarea Palaestinae or Caesarea Maritima to distinguish it from Caesarea Philippi. It was originally an ancient Phoenician settlement known as Straton's (Strato's Tower) and was rebuilt and enlarged by Herod the Great around 22-10 BC, who renamed it for his patron, Caesar Augustus. Herod also rebuilt the harbor, which traded with his newly built city at Sebaste (Augusta) of ancient Samaria. There were Hellenistic-Roman public buildings and an aqueduct. After Herod died, it became the capital of the Roman province of Judaea. An inscription naming Pontius Pilate is one of the best-known from the site. The city became the capital of the Roman province of Judaea in AD 6. Jewish revolts and later Byzantine and Arab rule cause the city's decline.
campo santo
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: In Spanish, holy field" or a cemetery or burial ground associated with a church."
Can Hasan
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: The site of a number of tells in southern Turkey. Can Hasan III was an aceramic Neolithic settlement c 6500 BC. There were at least seven structural phases, with dark burnished pottery in several levels and painted pottery in one. The villagers were agriculturists, growing einkorn and emmer, lentil, and vetch in the earlier phases. The main Can Hasan mound was occupied in the late Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods.
Casas Grandes
CATEGORY: culture; site
DEFINITION: A culture, river, and site in Chihuahua, northern Mexico. The town's name, Spanish for great houses refers to the extensive, multistoried ruins of a pre-Columbian town, which was probably founded in 1050 and burned around 1340, after which the abandoned valley lands were occupied by the Suma, who migrated in from the east. Ruins of this type are common in the valleys of the Casas Grandes and its tributaries. The earliest culture, also called the Viejo, was characterized by Mogollon-type pottery and pithouse dwellings. The following period, the Medio, had adobe houses. A third period, the Tardio, came after 1300 AD and was heavily influenced by Mesoamerica. The area was settled by the Spaniards in 1661/1662 and is now a national monument under the jurisdiction of the National Institute of Anthropology and History.
Cerro de las Mesas
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A site in southern Veracruz, Mexico, in the plains of the Papaloápan River that is a hybrid site of Pre-Classic and Classic periods. Dozens of earthen mounds are scattered over the surface in a seemingly haphazard manner, and the archaeological sequence is long and complex. The site reached its apogee in the Early Classic, when the stone monuments for which it is best known were carved. Most important are a number of stelae, some of which are carved in a low-relief style recalling Late Formative Tres Zapotes, early lowland Maya, and Cotzumalhuapa. Cerro de las Mesas pottery, deposited in rich burial offerings of the Early Classic, is much like that of Teotihuacan, with slab-legged tripods. Potters made large, hollow, handmade figures of the gods and the most spectacular discovery on the site was a cache of 782 jade objects, many of Olmec workmanship. Cerro de las Mesas is famous for Remojadas-style pottery figurines, found in great quantity as burial goods. Because the Classic occupation contains abundant Teotihuacan materials and two Maya Long Count dates (ad 468 and ad 533), it is usually interpreted as a redistribution point for materials from both Mexico and the Maya lowlands.
Charsada
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Pushkalavati, Peukolaotis
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A site in Pakistan which was the capital of the Achaemenid satrapy of Gandhara. There is a series of mounds, up to 20 meters high, concealing the caravan city of Pushkalavati with occupation from the 6th century BC to the 2nd or 1st century BC. Excavations near the largest mound, Bala Hisar, identified the defenses overrun by Alexander the Great in 327 BC, a rampart and ditch. A separate mound nearby, Shaikhan, was an Indo-Greek city of the second century BC.
cluster sample
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A sample in which the sampling elements are spaces or time periods but the analytical elements are countable observations in them.
compensating error
CATEGORY: measure
DEFINITION: An instance when errors on a sequence of measurements or measurements subject to arithmetical operations tend to cancel out"."
cone mosaic
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A type of wall decoration used in the Uruk (VI-IV) and Jemdet Nasr periods of southern Mesopotamia. Stone or baked clay cones were stuck into the surface of building facades to produce a colored mosaic geometric pattern. Examples have been found in the Eanna section of Warka.
core sampling
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: coring
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A subsurface detection technique using a hollow metal tube driven into the ground to lift a column of earth for stratigraphic study. This technique is used in underground or undersea exploration. A core sample is a roughly cylindrical piece of subsurface material removed by a special drill and brought to the surface for examination. Such a sample reveals the properties of underground rock, such as its porosity and permeability and allows investigation of the features of a given strata.
Cosa
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: modern Ansedonia
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A town on west coast of Italy, north of Rome, that was a Latin colony founded in 273 BC. There is well-preserved massive polygonal masonry surviving in the city walls, the forum, basilica, citadel, capitol, baths, and temples -- as well as remains of the grid street plan. The site was abandoned in 1st century BC.
Cotte de Sainte Brelade, La
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A Palaeolithic cave site in Jersey, the Channel Islands, which also has pre-Mousterian and Mousterian levels. Human remains include large teeth and a piece of a child's skull, presumed to be Neanderthal. There is also evidence that at La Cotte de Sainte Brelade, rhinoceroses and mammoths were driven over a cliff edge.
Cotzumahualpa, Santa Lucia
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: The site of a localized culture of the Late Classic period on the Pacific slopes of Guatemala. It was known for its unique style of stone sculpture, depicting scenes of deities gazing upward, skulls, serpent heads, and human sacrifice -- all enclosed within cartouches. There was also San Juan plumbate pottery.
cover sand
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: coversand, blow sand
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: A deposit or sediment of wind-blown sand which is formed by the carrying of sand grains from glacial outwash deposits or from the shore by wind gusts. In areas where this occurs, the deposits may wipe out evidence of previous occupation -- but they may also preserve artifact associations if the deposition is thick and rapid. If it happens slowly, the archaeological material may eventually end up several kilometers from its source.
Damb Sada'at
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Quetta
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A prehistoric site in the Quetta valley of western Pakistan which was occupied during the 3rd millennium BC. Well-built mud-brick houses consisting of several small rooms, copper tools, and wheel-turned pottery painted in black designs on a buff or greenish ground known as Quetta ware have been excavated.
Dasas
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: The inhabitants of northwestern India at the time of the Indo-European migrations, described in the Rig-Veda" as having dark faces and snub noses unintelligible speech and worshipping strange gods but living in fortified cities (pur) and being very rich especially in cattle. The Dasas are often identified with the inhabitants of the towns of the Indus Valley culture."
disarticulated
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: Bones out of their natural arrangement.
dispersal method
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A method of point-pattern analysis that attempts to determine whether the patterning of items of interest can be explained by random dispersal from a given point or whether they have been clustered during dispersal.
dorsal
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: On the side of a lithic flake or blade that would have been on the outside of the core (during striking) which shows cortex or scars from previous flake removals.
dorsal
CATEGORY: fauna
DEFINITION: Towards the back of an animal.
dorsal ridge
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: arris
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: The sharp ridge that marks the boundary between flake scars on the dorsal surface of a lithic flake.
Dosariyah
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A Saudi Arabian site representing the 'Ubaid influence in the Persian Gulf. There is 'Ubaid pottery and chipped stone.
Füzesabony
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: The third stage of the early Hungarian Bronze Age, named after the Tószeg Tell in Heves. The Füzesabony culture of the 21st-19th centuries BC is the Hungarian version of the Transylvanian/Rumanian Otomani culture. Most known settlements are unfortified tells with wattle-and-daub timber-framed houses, sometimes with plank and beam floors. There are large cemeteries, usually with inhumation burial. Notable finds are antler cheekpieces for horse bits.
Filitosa
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A fortified promontory settlement in Corsica, France, dating to the Chalcolithic or Early Bronze Age c 2500-2000 BC. There is a tower (torre) -- a dry-stone tower fortified by a wall of Cylopean masonry; inside are three buildings. The walls incorporate statue-menhirs, which show warriors armed with daggers and swords. There is a radiocarbon date of c 1500 BC for one of the three torri inside the defenses.
geomagnetic reversals
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: An alternation of the Earth's magnetic polarity in geologic time. It is an aspect of archaeomagnetism especially relevant to the dating of the Lower Paleolithic, involving complete reversals in the earth's magnetic field.
Gerasa
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Jerash
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A major Roman city of Judea (modern Jordan), founded by the Seleucids. Extensive remains include colonnaded street, forum, stadium, triumphal arch, theater, and temples to Athena and Zeus. Gerasa was one of the 10 cities of the Decapolis league.
gisant
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: In sepulchral sculpture, an effigy representing the person in death; especially, an effigy depicting the deceased in a state of advanced decomposition. It was popular in 15th- and 16th-century northern Europe. The gisant was often placed below a portrait, or orant, effigy, which represented the person praying or kneeling, as in life. It was a reminder of the transitory nature of life.
Gradesnitsa
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A Late Neolithic village site of the Gumelnita culture in northwest Bulgaria with Karanovo I and Copper Age layers. Excavations have revealed complete early Neolithic house plans, succeeded in the Copper Age by a large village of three occupational phases with houses arranged in streets. In a Copper Age ritual assemblage is a house model inscribed with signs and the so-called Gradesnitsa plaque -- a fired clay disc covered in elaborate incised symbols -- similar to the one found at Tartaria.
ground reconnaissance
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A collective name for a variety of methods for identifying archaeological sites, including consultation of documentary sources, place-name evidence, local folklore and legend, but primarily the visual inspection from groundwork of a potential site.
guisarme
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A long handled weapon which has a long blade in line with the shaft, sharpened on both sides and ending in a point.
Gussage All Saints
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An Iron Age settlement in Dorset, England, with evidence of metalworking -- bronze fittings for chariots and harnesses. It may have been an area of vehicle production.
Hal Saflieni
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A large rock-cut hypogeum on Malta, which was constructed by the same population that built the Maltese temples, and is a complex of many small rock-cut chambers, on three different levels, linked by a series of halls, passages, and stairways. Many of the chambers are elaborately decorated, often with carved features imitating wooden structures such as beams and lintels; other chambers have painted decoration, usually on the ceilings. Most of the chambers had been used for burial and it has been calculated that some 7000 individuals were buried in the whole hypogeum, over a period of some centuries. The hypogeum may also have been used as a temple as some places without burials were set aside for ritual. Artifacts include highly decorated pottery and a series of female figurines. The earliest chambers date to the 5th millennium BC.
Hamada, Kosaku (1881-1938)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: A Japanese art historian and archaeologist who was important in the development of archaeology in Japan. He realized the importance of the links between the Japanese archipelago and the main continent (Korea and China). He established the first formal course in archaeology in Japan.
Hargeisan
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A stone industry of northern Somalia with production of large blades from prismatic cores and which appears to predate the local appearance of microlith industries. It may be related to the Eburran occupation of the central Kenyan Rift Valley between the 11th and 8th millennia BC.
Hasanlu
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A tell site on Lake Urmia, northwest Iran, with a sequence beginning in the late 7th millennium BC. Much information has been gained on the early Ceramic Neolithic phase of the late-7th to mid-6th millennia BC. The citadel dates from the 10th century BC and is surrounded by a lower town. Four buildings on the citadel, facing onto a court and linked to a higher court with further buildings, have been interpreted as a palace complex. In c 800 BC, Hasanlu was destroyed. One of the skeletons held a magnificent gold bowl decorated with mythical scenes in relief. The bowl is related artistically to the finds from Marlik and Ziwiyeh. Other rich finds of gold, silver, electrum, glass, and ivory have been made at Hasanlu.
Hattusas
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Boghaz Köy; Hattusa, Hattusha, Khattusas, Bogazköy
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: The ancient name for Boghaz Köy, the capital of the Hittites, who established a powerful empire in Anatolia and northern Syria in the 2nd millennium BC.
hippo sandal
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Iron shoes worn by draft animals during Roman times for temporary protection of their hooves or to aid grip in wet conditions.
Hissar, Tepe
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A tell site near Damghan in northern Iran, occupied from the 5th to the early 2nd millennium BC. Before 2500 BC, earlier than elsewhere in Iran, the painted pottery tradition was replaced by one of gray monochrome ware. This is usually held to mark the first movement of Indo-European speaking peoples from central Asia into Iran. The settlement was destroyed somewhere between c 1900-1600 BC. Evidence from the later 4th-early 3rd millennia BC suggests Proto-Elamite phenomenon manifested in pottery, seals, and tablet blanks. There are more than 1600 prehistoric burials and a Sassanian palace on the site, which has an interesting pottery sequence and metal objects.
Hissarlik
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Hisarlik/Troy
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A small site above the Scamander Plain, Turkey, with massive ruins that Heinrich Schliemann established to be the ruins of ancient Troy (1877-1890). It is set on a plain overlooking the southern entrance to the Dardanelles in northwestern Anatolia. The series of seven Bronze Age settlements (with subphases) date from the late 4th millennium BC to the 12th century BC. The famous 'treasure of Priam', a hoard of precious metal and semi-precious stone objects, came from one of the Troy II levels. The settlement was ended by massive fires.
Homo sapiens
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: The modern human species, possibly evolving out of Neanderthal Man, with the archaic Homo sapiens dating to between c 100,000-33,000 years ago (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) and the oldest-known anatomically modern Homo sapiens fossils dating between 130,000-80,000 years ago. Modern man -- a large, erect, omnivorous terrestrial biped -- first appears in the fossil record during the late Upper Pleistocene around 35,000 BC. It is still controversial how Neanderthals were replaced by the modern Homo sapiens. The oldest fossils come from sites in Africa and the Near East. In Eurasia the oldest flint industries associated with Homo sapiens are always of Upper Palaeolithic blade-and-burin type. Modern man's technology replaced that of the Mousterian period.
incensario
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Spanish term for an incense burner made of pottery or stone, used in Mesoamerican religious and political ceremonies.
intuitive sampling
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: The use of personal preferences and gut feeling in locating archaeological test units.
Isaac, Glynn Llywelyn (1937-1985)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: Palaeoanthropologist who studied the early Pleistocene of East Africa. He is credited with developing new approaches to the interpretation of very early archaeological remains.
Jaszdozsa
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An Early Bronze Age tell settlement near Szolnok, Hungary. Occupation layers of the Hatvan and Füzesabony groups have been found, with well-preserved domestic architecture.
Jerusalem
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: City in the Judaean hills, Israel, occupied for more than 4000 years and now the capital of Israel. Many excavations have taken place since the 1860s, but because of the long history of destruction and rebuilding on the site, it has been difficult to reconstruct the development of the city. Sporadic traces of 4th- and 3rd-millennium BC occupation occur, but the first substantial settlement with a town wall belongs to the Late Bronze Age of the 2nd millennium BC. Jerusalem was captured by the Israelites under David in c 996 BC and extended to the north by Solomon, who built a temple and palace. Few early buildings survive with the exception of the rock-cut water tunnel constructed by Hezekiah in the late 8th century BC. The city fell to the Babylonians in 587 BC and was rebuilt after 538 BC. The present plan of the city, excluding the two ridges to the south, goes back to Herod the Great (37-34 BC) and the rebuilding under Hadrian. It became a Hellenistic city under Antiochus IV and was Romanized in the 1st century BC. The Jewish revolt of 70 AD inspired Titus to destroy the city. Under Constantine, it gained new important as a Christian center and was destroyed once more in 614 AD, by the Persians. Jerusalem is venerated by Jews, Christians, and Muslims. The Dome of the Rock (685-692 AD) is the most striking Islamic building in Jerusalem.
Königsaue
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithic site by Halle, Germany, dating to the Early Glacial. There were sidescrapers and small handaxes.
Kansai
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: A region of ancient cities to the west (sai) of the mountain barrier (kan) near Mount Fuji, the birthplace of the earliest Japanese state and one of Japan's traditional cultural areas. It is an area of historically dense population that until well into the 20th century was the most industrialized and economically advanced part of Japan. It was an early medieval administrative district of west-central Japan, roughly the same as the modern Kinki district. The Keihanshin Industrial Zone corresponds to the Kansai.
Kansanshi
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An ancient copper mine near the modern Solwezi in central Zambia's Copperbelt. Small-scale exploitation of the copper deposit appears to have begun during the Early Iron Age of the second half of the 1st millennium AD. Large-scale workings are not attested before the 14th or 15th century.
Kassala
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A cultural phase of eastern Sudan including the Butana, Gash, and Mokram groups.
Kastritsa
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An Upper Palaeolithic cave site in northwest Greece with occupation beginning c 22,000-11,000 bp. Artifacts include backed blades, shouldered points, bone points, and decorated pebbles.
Kausambi
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Kaushambi
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A site in the Ganges Valley of northern India which was a great urban center in the early historical period. Its earliest wall, of mudbrick faced with baked brick 12 m high, was built about 500 BC. Within it is a Buddhist monastery the fifth century BC where, according to an inscription, the Buddha himself stayed for a time. Of the same period is a building interpreted as a palace, with walls of stone rubble. The site has provided important information about the origins and development of the Gangetic Iron Age urban civilization. The earliest levels contain pottery related to the Ochre Colored Pottery horizon and are dated to the mid-2nd millennium BC. The second level has black-and-red, red, gray, and black wares and iron objects also appear, in the second quarter of the 1st millennium BC. There was Northern Black Polished Ware in the third level of around 500 BC.
Khoisan
CATEGORY: culture; language
DEFINITION: Collective term for the Khoikhoin and San peoples of southern Africa and their languages. The Khoisan languages are click languages spoken in southern Africa. The term Khoisan was created to refer to the related peoples known as Bushmen and Hottentots (i.e., the Khoisanid peoples) under a common name and has become increasingly accepted since its creation in 1928. The word is derived from Khoikhoi and San, the names of the peoples called, respectively and pejoratively, Hottentots and Bushmen.
Khor Musa
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Khor-Musa
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A site of Middle Palaeolithic occupation in the southern Nile Valley of Egypt in the Second Cataract. It has given its name to the final phase of the Nubian 'Middle Stone Age' for other sites close to the River Nile and contemporary with, or following, the Aterian. The site had Levallois flakes, denticulates, and burins. It seems probable that the Khormusan industry was broadly contemporary with the Dabban of Cyrenaica, belonging to the period following c 40,000 BC when increased aridity rendered the Sahara uninhabitable. Faunal remains from Khormusan sites indicate fishing and the hunting of land animals.
Khorsabad
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: ancient Dur-Sharrukin, Fort of Sargon
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: The site of the ancient city of Dur-Sharrukin, near Mosul, Iraq. It was a short-lived capital of Assyria. Founded by Neo-Assyrian king Sargon II in 717 BC, it included a magnificent palace within a city, but it did not survive its founder's death in 705 BC. It was built by Sargon to replace Nimrud. However, after Sargon's death, his son Sennacherib moved the capital to Nineveh. It has yielded a rich collection of sculptured slabs and cuneiform inscriptions now in the Louvre in Paris, though much was lost in the Euphrates while being transported to France. The most impressive remains lie on the citadel --several temples, a ziggurat, and a royal palace.
Kisalian
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: An Iron Age industry of southeastern Zaire which succeeded the Kamilambian c 8th century AD. There is a large cemetery site at Sanga on the shore of Lake Kisale, with numerous objects in ceramics, iron, copper, and ivory and items suggesting East African coastal trade. The industry reached its full development in the 10th-14th centuries. The funerary practices indicate the beginning of a hierarchical society in central Africa.
Kisapostag
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An Early to Middle Bronze Age culture of western Hungary and Slovenia typologically contemporaneous with the late Unetice and Hatvan cultures. This Danube Valley culture dates to the early 2nd millennium BC, with a number of cemeteries in which inurned cremation is the characteristic rite. Kisapostag arsenical copper work is relatively rich and from its typological affinities with the Unetice metalwork of Bohemia.
Koumbi Saleh
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Kumbi
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Site north of Bamako, Mali, which may have been the capital of the ancient Ghana empire in the 11th century. Ghana was a great trading empire that flourished in western Africa from the 9th through the 13th century. The city had a large urban settlement, two cemeteries, and a mosque. Within its boundaries there were--as was the custom of the early kingdoms of the western Sudan -- two cities, one of which was occupied by the king, the other by Muslim traders. The mosque's foundation was built in the 9th century AD. Ghana's power declined during the 11th century after nearly 20 years of attacks from the Almoravids, a Berber military and religious order from the Sahara, devoted to converting nonbelievers to Islam.
kshemenitsa
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A term for a dense scatter of flint artifacts and débitage on a Late Palaeolithic or Mesolithic site in Eastern Europe, indicating a flint working site.
La Cotte de Saint-Brelade
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Cave site on Jersey of the Channel Islands with prehistoric remains of Paleolithic man and there is abundant evidence of the Neolithic and Bronze ages. There are Acheulian bifaces, Mousterian artifacts, and Neanderthal teeth. Jersey was linked to the continent in times of low sea level.
Lagoa Santa caves
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A system of caves in Minas Gerais, Brazil, occupied from the late Pleistocene, with human remains, stone tools, and remains of extinct mastodon and sloth. Dated to 15,300 bp is an industry of quartz flakes. The Cerca Grande complex of 10,000-8000 bp had small rock-crystal flakes, axes, bone projectile points, hammerstones, and a cemetery of 50 flexed inhumations. There are hundreds of rock paintings from the Planalto Tradition of 7000-3000 bp.
Lake Besaka
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A series of sites in southeastern Ethiopia where, in the mid-2nd millennium BC, local stone industries made a variety of scrapers. Stone bowls, akin to those of the East African Pastoral Neolithic sites far to the south, also occur.
Landsat or LANDSAT
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS)
CATEGORY: tool
DEFINITION: The Earth Resources Technology Satellites, any of a series of unmanned U.S. scientific satellites that produce small-scale images of vast areas of the earth's surface; used to study regional patterns of use of land and other resources.
Larisa
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Larissa
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Mousterian site in northern Greece and a Final Neolithic culture with a black polished pottery. In antiquity, Larissa was the seat of the Aleuad clan, founded by Aleuas, who claimed descent from Heracles. The poet Pindar and the physician Hippocrates died there. In 357 BC the last Aleuads called in Philip II of Macedonia against the tyrants of Pherae, and from 344 to 196 Larissa remained under Macedonia. Rome then made it capital of the reorganized Thessalian League. The emperor Justinian fortified the city, whose name means citadel"."
Larsa
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: modern Senkera or Tall Sankarah
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: The most important city of southern Mesopotamia during the early Old Babylonian period, one of the city-states of Sumer. It was located on the Euphrates River between Ur and Babylon, southeast of Uruk, southern Iraq. Archaeological remains are found in a group of tells, though most of its history has been recovered from documents from other sites. It emerged as a city-state during the Early Dynastic period, and its period of greatness was in the early 2nd millennium BC, when it contested the supremacy of Mesopotamia with Isin, Assur, and Eshnunna. The first great ruler was Naplanum (reigned c 2025-2005 BC), who was succeeded by 13 kings. Its greatest ruler, Rim Sin, destroyed Isin c 1794 BC but was himself overthrown by Hammurabi of Babylon c 1763. Remains include a ziggurat, a temple to the sun god, and a palace of Nur-Adad (c 1865-1850 BC), as well as many tombs and other remains of the Neo-Babylonian and Seleucid periods. The documented settlement history of the site spans from the late 3rd millennium (Ur III) to the mid-1st millennium (Neo-Babylonian) BC.
limited-area reconnaissance
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A method of comprehensively inquiring about a site, supported by actual substantiation of claims that sites exist by checking the ground.
Little Salt Spring
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A prehistoric site in Florida with hearths, a boomerang, projectile point, and shell of extinct giant land tortoise from the Palaeoindian period (12,000-8500 BP). There was an Archaic occupation (6800-5200 BP) with burials of 1000 individuals preserved in peat.
Lusatian culture
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Lausitz culture; Lusatia
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age (Hallstatt period) culture of Poland and eastern Germany, an urnfield culture which had formed by c 1500 BC. Larger settlements, such as Biskupin, Senftenberg, and Sobiejuchy, are fortified. The culture is noted for its bronzework and its fine dark pottery, sometimes graphite-burnished and generally decorated with bosses and fluted ornament. Iron tools were adopted in the north throughout the earlier Iron Age. In some classifications, the Middle Bronze Age 'pre-Lausitz' phase is considered the first stage of the Lusatian culture proper.
Macassans
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: Indonesian traders, particularly from Sulawesi, who visited tropical Australia during the Indonesian monsoon season. They collected and processed sea-slugs (trepang, bêche-de-mer, sea cucumber), an important ingredient in their cooking. Archaeological evidence consists of stone structures used to support boiling vats, scatters of Indonesian potsherds, ash concentrations from smokehouses, graves, and living tamarind trees descended from seeds brought by the trepangers. Their cultural legacies to the Aborigines included metal tools, dugout canoes, vocabulary, art motifs, song cycles, rituals, and depictions of Macassan praus in rock paintings and stone arrangements. Macassan voyagers to Australia arrived around 1700 AD and continued till the end of the 19th century.
magnetic reversals
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A change in the magnetic direction of the Earth. It was discovered that volcanic lava flows, which like kilns and fired clay record the magnetism at the time they were hot, retained measurable magnetization in a reversed direction. Over the last 4 million years, magnetic direction changed at least 10 times. It switched to normal, as we know it, about 700,000 years ago. The direction of the dipole component reverses, on an average, about every 300,000 to 1,000,000 years. This reversal is very sudden on a geologic time scale, apparently taking about 5,000 years. The time between reversals is highly variable, sometimes occurring in less than 40,000 years and at other times remaining steady for as long as 35,000,000 years. No regularities or periodicities have yet been discovered in the pattern of reversals. A long interval of one polarity may be followed by a short interval of opposite polarity. These reversals have proved an important dating aid to archaeology.
Maritsa culture
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: Late Neolithic culture of the eastern Balkans, contemporary with Vinca C, between 4000-3700 BC. It is characterized by the materials from Karanovo's Layer V, with dark pottery whose surface tended to be covered by either incised or excised lines which were filled with white paint after firing.
Marquesas Islands
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An island group of Eastern Polynesia, first settled c 300 AD.
Marsa Matruh
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: ancient Paraetonium
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Harbor site on the Mediterranean coast in northwestern Egypt, which was the site of the Ptolemaic city of Paraetonium. It was the capital of Sicca.
Masada
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Palestinian site with a great rock fortress-palace complex built by Herod the Great (37-4 BC). It lies west of the Dead Sea, where the last survivors of the First Jewish Rebellion (Zealots) of 70 AD defied the Roman army (66-73 AD), and whose siege works can still be traced. Although first fortified by the Hasmonean king Alexander Jannaeus (ruled 103-76 BC), Herod was the chief builder of Masada. His constructions (37-31 BC) included two ornate palaces (one of them on three levels), heavy walls, and aqueducts, which brought water to cisterns holding nearly 200,000 gallons. After Herod's death (4 BC), Masada was captured by the Romans, but the Jewish Zealots took it by surprise in AD 66. A synagogue and ritual bath discovered there are the earliest yet found in Palestine.
Maysar
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Samad
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An Umm An-Nar settlement in southeastern Arabia with Bronze Age copper smelting. It was the chief product of the ancient Magan. There is also evidence of Bronze Age agriculture and burial patterns; Iron Age settlements, fortifications, and burials.
Merimde Beni Salama
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Merinde, Merimda Beni Salama
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Site on the west bank of the Nile Delta, Egypt, representing one of the earliest cultures of Egypt, similar to that of the Fayyum (Faiyum). It yielded a radiocarbon date of 5060 BC and was occupied for about 600 years, probably c 4900-4300 BC, by a population up to 16,000. Three occupation phases showed progressively more substantial shelters, beneath which the dead were buried in a crouched position. Barley and emmer, cattle, sheep, and pigs are attested. Sickle flints and hollow-based arrowheads, pyriform and spherical maceheads, sling stones, fishhooks, spindle whorls, and simple stone axheads have been found. The pottery was poor, plain, straw-tempered and often covered with a slip. It is the earliest evidence for fully sedentary village life in the Nile valley. The Merimda phase of the Lower Egyptian Predynastic Period appears to have been roughly contemporary with the late Badarian and Amratian phases in Upper Egypt.
mesa
CATEGORY: geography
DEFINITION: A steep-sided, flat-topped hill, tableland, or mountain. A mesa is an isolated and relatively flat-topped natural elevation usu. more extensive than a butte and less extensive than a plateau. The term is also applied to a broad terrace with an abrupt slope on one side. In US Southwest, mesas were often used for settlements in pre-Columbian times.
Mesa Verde
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A large flat-topped mountain in southwest Colorado which was an area of Anasazi occupation beginning in c 600 AD. The structures are among the most spectacular in the American Southwest: cliff dwellings which are large Pueblo III multiroom apartment dwellings. The most famous is the Cliff Palace, comprised of 200 rooms and 23 kivas built of dressed stone blocks. The population rose steadily until 1200, after which date came decline and total abandonment of the area by c 1300.
Mesara
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Large, fertile southern plain of Crete, exploited since the later Neolithic. The Minoan palace of Phaistos and Gortyn, the capital of the Roman province of Crete and Cyrenaica, are the two main archaeological sites. The tholoi, or beehive tombs, were developed on the Mesara plain.
Metsamor
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Sites in Armenia near Yerevan with Kura-Araxes and Late Bronze to Early Iron Age occupations. The latter indicates the existence of pre-Urartian states in Transcaucasia. Objects inscribed in Mesopotamian cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphics have been found in the graves dating to the 15th-14th centuries BC. these imply long-distance contacts with southern civilizations.
Mirgissa
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: ancient Iken
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Fortified site of the Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 BC), located in Lower Nubia, at the northern end of the second cataract of the Nile. The site has been submerged beneath Lake Nasser since completion of Aswan High Dam in 1971. It was the major commercial center known in ancient times as Iken.
monocausal explanation
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: An explanation of culture change (e.g. for state origins) which lays stress on a single dominant explanatory factor of prime mover"."
mosaic
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: mosaic work
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A technique of decoration used mainly on floors or walls involving the setting of small colored fragments of stone, tile, mineral, shell, or glass, each called a tessera (plural tesserae), in a cement or adhesive matrix. Mosaic also refers to a tesselated area, often of complex designs and, possibly, inscriptions. Mosaic floors were made from small squares, triangles, or other regular shapes up to an inch in size. They were laid in cement to form designs, figures of animals, or classical figures representing the seasons, etc. Old limestone would be used for white and various reds, browns, or grays from baked clays. Glass, too, was sometimes incorporated. The earliest known mosaics date from the 8th century BC and are made of pebbles, a technique refined by Greek craftsmen in the 5th century BC. Greek mosaics were simple pebble floors and then became more complex and sophisticated under Macedonian kings. Mosaics are known from Pompeii and Rome, Tivoli, Aquileia, and Ostia -- as well as Africa, Antioch, Sicily, and Britain. Under the Roman Empire, the achievements of the 5th-6th century Byzantine artists at Ravenna are impressive. An excellent collection of mosaics from Pompeii may be seen in the Mueo Nazionale at Naples, and a good selection of Imperial Roman provincial work may be seen at the Museum of Le Bardo, outside modern Tunis, Tunisia. Pre-Columbian American Indians favored mosaics of semiprecious stones such as garnet and turquoise and mother-of-pearl. These were normally used to encrust small objects such as shields, masks, and cult statues. Mosaic as an art form has most in common with painting. It represents a design or image in two dimensions. It is also, like painting, a technique appropriate to large-scale surface decoration.
Mount Sandel
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Mesolithic site in Londonderry, Ireland, with circular wooden hut foundations with central hearths. There was a lithic industry of microliths, tranchet axes, and polished stone axes.
multi-stage cluster samples
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: Cluster samples in which a sample is all that is examined; sampling at least two levels or sub-sampling.
Musang Cave
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Cave in northern Luzon, Philippines with an early flake industry c 12,000-9000 BC. There is also a Neolithic assemblage dated to c 3500 BC (or later).
Musawwarat es-Sufra
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Meroitic site in Upper Nubia with a colonnaded temple, complex of monumental stone buildings, and elephant pens.
mutisalah
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Small opaque reddish glass bead used in the late 1st millennium BC at maritime Southeast Asia sites. It was probably made in southern India.
Mylasa
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Milas
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A town in Asia Minor possibly founded by Mausolus, ruler of Caria (377-353 BC). Hellenistic and Roman site with Corinthian-style Temple of Zeus, Temple of Augustus and Rome, and ceremonial arch.
Nevasa
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Prehistoric site on the northern Deccan plateau in western central India with a Middle Palaeolithic industry, a regional Chalcolithic with Jorwe ware of the later 2nd millennium BC, and a settlement of the late 1st millennium BC with wares of late Iron Age southern India. Another phase shows trade with Rome by the early 1st millennium AD. Glass beads and bangles characteristic of the Hindu culture of about 200 BC have been discovered in Nevasa excavations.
Nissan Island
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Melanesian island with a sequence of Lapita and pre-Lapita (c 5000 bp, Aceramic Neolithic). The pre-Lapita deposits contain obsidian from Talasea, indicating long-distance sea voyages.
non-probabilistic sampling
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: nonprobabilistic sampling
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A non-statistical sampling strategy (in contrast to probabilistic sampling) which concentrates on sampling areas on the basis of intuition, historical documentation, or long field experience in the area. It is the acquisition of sample data based on informal criteria or personal judgment. It does not allow evaluation of how representative the sample is with respect to the data population.
nonarbitrary sample unit
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A subdivision of the data universe with cultural relevance, such as sample units defined by data clusters in remains of rooms or houses.
nonprobabilistic sampling
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: non-probabilistic sampling
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A non-statistical sampling strategy (in contrast to probabilistic sampling) which concentrates on sampling areas on the basis of intuition, historical documentation, or long field experience in the area. It is the acquisition of sample data based on informal criteria or personal judgment. It does not allow evaluation of how representative the sample is with respect to the data population.
nonrandom sampling
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: Any method in which cases are not chosen by random sampling, such as snowball sampling in which cases are selected based on previous cases or opportunistic sampling in which cases are selected because they are readily available.
Nové Kosariská
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Early Iron Age complex of tumuli near Bratislava, Slovakia, dated to the Hallstatt C and D periods. The tumuli have elaborate central timber-lined chambers with cremation burials in different vessels -- 20-80 per tumulus.
Olorgesailie
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Important Lower Palaeolithic site south of Nairobi in southern Kenya; the area of Mount Olorgesailie was where the Rift Valley was first recognized. It had an informative Earlier Stone Age Acheulian industry with hand axes, cleavers, and other stone artifacts dating to 900,000-700,000 years ago. Baboons were hunted in large numbers.
one-sample test
CATEGORY: measure
DEFINITION: A statistical test of the comparison of a sample statistic with a known or hypothetical parameter value.
Orissa
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A constituent state of eastern India, well known for its Jaina rock-cut temples, dating from the 1st century AD. Over the centuries, the land now called Orissa has passed under the names of Utkala, Kalinga, and Odra Desha, names originally associated with particular peoples.
Oronsay
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Island of the Inner Hebrides, Scotland, with coastal Late Mesolithic shell midden sites dated to c 3700-3200 BC. Small groups of people likely moved between the sites.
Osa
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Late Mesolithic and Early Neolithic settlement located in Latvia, Russia. The Mesolithic levels had a rich bone and antler industry with radiocarbon dates of c 5200-4800 BC. An Early Neolithic occupation contained Osa type pottery and similar bone tools, with radiocarbon dates of 3950-3800 BC. There was also a thin layer of the Pit-Comb Ware group, with a radiocarbon date of c 2050 BC.
Osan-ri
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Osanni
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Early Neolithic site in Kangwondo Province, Korea, with 7th millennium BC dates for Chulmun pottery.
Otranto mosaic
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A Romanesque cathedral in Apulia, southeastern Italy, with a mosaic pavement covering the nave and aisles. Laid between 1163-1166, it was designed by a priest named Pantaleon and shows certain similarities to the Bayeux tapestry. The central theme is the history of the universe. Similar mosaics existed at other Apulian Romanesque cathedrals, but this splendid work is the only one to have survived.
Paccaicasas
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Paccaicasa
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: The earliest stone tool complex of the Ayacucho Valley, in the central highlands of Peru, which may represent man's earliest presence in South America. Radiocarbon dates of 17,620 BC and 12,730 BC were obtained from sloth bone found in association with crude stone tools and flakes of volcanic tuff. Choppers, bifacial tools, and waste flakes therefore dated between 18,000-12,000 BC.
palisade
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: A continuous wall or fence of stakes, especially for defense; a series of long strong stakes pointed at the top and set close with others as a defense. They were usually set in a continuous foundation trench or on the tops of vallums, embankments, or ramparts surrounding a fort.
Pasargadae
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: The first dynastic capital of the Achaemenian Empire, situated northeast of Persepolis in modern southwestern Iran. Traditionally, Cyrus II the Great (reigned c 559- 529 BC) chose the site because it lay near the scene of his victory over Astyages the Mede (550 BC). The buildings are scattered over a wide area; they include two palaces, a gatehouse and a square stone tower, as well as a religious area with a large fire altar. Trilingual inscriptions in Elamite, Babylonian (Akkadian), and Old Persian, all in the cuneiform script, occur on the palaces and gatehouse. Southwest of the palaces is the tomb of Cyrus, almost intact: an impressive rectangular stone chamber with a gabled roof, set on a high stepped plinth. At the extreme southern edge of the site, an impressive rock-cut road or canal indicates the course of the ancient highway that once linked Pasargadae with Persepolis. After the accession of Darius I the Great (522 BC), Persepolis replaced Pasargadae as the dynastic home.
passage grave
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: passage tomb
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: A category of megalithic or chambered tomb in which there is a burial chamber and a separate passage into the tomb; the chamber is reached from the edge of the covering mound via a long passage. It includes the earliest known megalithic graves of Europe, dating from about 5000 BC (in Brittany). The diagnostic features are a round mound covering a burial chamber (often roofed by corbelling) approached by a narrower entrance passage. The distinction between passage and funerary chamber proper is very marked. The origin of the passage grave is unclear. Passage graves occur throughout the area where megalithic tombs occur in Europe, but have a predominantly western distribution. In some areas, passage graves were still being constructed in the Bronze Age.
peak sanctuary
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: Minoan cult location in the mountains of Crete. These sanctuaries had deposits of votive offerings but no monumental architecture.
peasant
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: Any person who cultivates land in rural areas for their basic subsistence and pays tribute to elite groups.
Picosa culture
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: Late Archaic culture that began c 3000 BC in the American Southwest and is considered by some to be ancestral to the Anasazi, Hohokam, and Mogollon traditions. It was located in southern California, southern Nevada, Arizona, and southwestern New Mexico, as well as the Four Corners region.
Pithekoussai
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: ancient Aenaria, Inarime; modern Ischia
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A volcanic island off the northern part of the Bay of Naples, and site of arguably the earliest Greek colony in the western Mediterranean. Lying on sea trade routes to Italy, and especially Etruria, the colony was established by Euboean Greeks from Chalcis and Eretria, c 775-750 BC. The Monte Vico region shows occupational evidence going back to the Bronze Age, and the acropolis shows also Bronze Age and Iron Age material. The island had good agricultural land and rich deposits of potters' clay and it became the principal supplier to Campania. There was also a wide variety of metalworking. A large necropolis has inhumation and cremation burials containing oriental trinkets, Egyptian scarabs, and varied imported and local pottery, including inter alisa, a Rhodian cup bearing one of the earliest examples of the Greek alphabet, a Chalcidian version written from right to left. This cup, bearing the inscription in Greek in the Euboean script I am the cup of Nestor can be securely dated to before 700 BC. Cumae, a mainland Italian offshoot of the island settlement of Pithekoussai, was founded c 750 BC.
Playa Hermosa
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A site on central Peruvian coast north of Lima which has yielded an assemblage of preceramic period tools, textiles, and evidence of cultivated corn, lima beans, chili peppers c 2300-2100 BC.
probabilistic sampling
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: An archaeological sampling method based on formal statistical criteria in selecting sample units to be investigated. It is designed to draw reliable general conclusions about a site or region, based on small sample areas, and allows evaluation of how representative the sample is with respect to the data population. Four types of sampling strategies are recognized: 1) simple random sampling; 2) stratified random sampling; 3) systematic sampling; 4) stratified systematic sampling.
probability sample
CATEGORY: measure
DEFINITION: A sample selected on the basis of probability theory.
psalia
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Ancient accessories of horse bits or cheek pieces, comprising a pair of vertical rods which were attached perpendicularly to the ends of bits and served for attaching the reins and as a stop piece. Psalia of bone, wood, bronze, and iron were used everywhere there was horse riding. Their shapes are varied and useful for chronological and cultural attributions.
Psamtik
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Psammetichus, Psamtek
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: Birth name given to three kings of the 26th (or Saite) Dynasty (664-525 BC): Psamtek I Wahibra (reigned 664-610 BC), who expelled the Assyrians from Egypt and reunited the country, founded the 26th Dynasty. Psamtek II Neferibra (reigned 595-589 BC), conducted an important expedition against the kingdom of Cush. Psamtek III Ankhkaenra (reigned 526-525 BC), was the last king of the Dynasty and failed to block the Persian invasion of 525 and was later executed for treason.
purposive sample
CATEGORY: measure
DEFINITION: A sample selected on the basis of experience and judgment rather than probability theory.
Pusan
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Busan
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A region of the South Korean peninsula with a well-excavated prehistoric sequence. The first period, Chodo, is not dated but may be contemporary with the Early Jomon of Japan. The Chodo culture is ceramic and classed as Neolithic. The second period, Mokto, has a radiocarbon date of c 3950 BC. The third period, Pusan, is radiocarbon dated to c 3000 BC and was succeeded by the Tudo period characterized by 'comb-pattern' ware. Trade with Japan is documented by imported obsidian and by glycemeris shell bracelets.
Qasr es-Sagha
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Egyptian site in northern Fayyum with an undecorated temple, probably of the Middle Kingdom.
radioimmunoassay
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A method of protein analysis in which it is possible to identify protein molecules surviving in fossils which are thousands and even millions of years old.
random element sample
CATEGORY: measure
DEFINITION: A sample selected when each element of analytical interest in the population has an equal probability of selection.
random sampling
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: random sample
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A sample drawn at random from a population, each member of it having an equal or other specified chance of inclusion. This sampling technique is based on a totally random selection of sample units to be investigated, which each unit having an equal chance of being selected.
reconnaissance
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: reconnaissance survey
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A broad range of techniques involved in the location of archaeological sites, e.g. surface survey and the recording of surface artifacts and features, the sampling of natural and mineral resources, and sometimes testing of an area to assess the number and extent of archaeological resources.
Renaissance
CATEGORY: chronology; culture
DEFINITION: The period in European civilization immediately following the Middle Ages, conventionally held to have been characterized by a surge of interest in classical learning and values. It was the rebirth of European intellectual curiosity about the natural world and the role of humans in it, originating in the 15th century in Italy. Changing social, political, and economics conditions, as well as rediscovery of Classical texts, were basic to this rebirth.
research proposal
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A formally presented research design or strategy describing an intended project and its predicted results.
rite of passage
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: A ritual symbolizing a transition in the life of an individual and his or her altered relationships to others.
Rogachev, Aleksandr Nikolaevich (1912-1984)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: Soviet archaeologist who specialized in the Palaeolithic and the study of stratigraphy and remains at Kostenki-Borshchevo sites. He also excavated at Avdeevo.
Romano-Saxon ware
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: This term is used both of wheel-made Roman pottery in coarse or color-coated fabrics with stamped or bossed decoration resembling that on many hand-made Saxon vessels, and of hand-made Saxon pottery imitating Roman forms. It is found mainly in eastern England. The former class belongs to the late 3rd and 4th centuries and is not to be confused with stamped ware of earlier periods such as LONDON and PARISIAN wares.
rosary
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A string of beads used to aid the memory in reciting a set of devotions.
sa
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: A hieroglyphic sign meaning 'protection', which may have originally represented the rolled-up reed mat that would have sheltered herdsmen or been the papyrus 'life-vest' for boatmen. The sign was used either as an amulet or symbol and held by deities Bes and Taweret.
Sa-huynh
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sa Huynh
CATEGORY: culture; site
DEFINITION: Iron Age culture and site on the central coast of southern Vietnam, dating mainly from the 1st millennium BC and associated with pottery urn burials and rich artifact assemblages paralleled most closely in the Philippines, north Borneo, and Sulawesi. The culture may be associated with early Chamic (Austronesian) settlement in Vietnam or proto-Cham, and appears to be contemporary with, but separate from, the Dong-son culture of north Vietnam. Most assemblages known are from jar burials. Characteristic artifacts include lingling-o earrings and double-headed animal pendants of jadeite. It was active c 600 BC-c 100 AD.
Saale
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Saale Glacial Stage, Saalian cold stage
CATEGORY: chronology
DEFINITION: A division of Pleistocene deposits and time in northern Europe which followed the Holstein Interglacial Stage and preceded the Eemian Interglacial Stage. It was the penultimate cold stage in northern Europe, c 200,000-125,000 BP. The extensive and complex Saale deposits are correlated with the Wolstonian (or Gipping) Glacial Stage of Britain and the Riss Glacial Stage of the European Alpine region. The Saale is roughly contemporaneous with the Illinoian Glacial Stage of North America. The Saale has three complex phases: the Drente, Treene, and Warthe substages. The Drente and Warthe represent periods of glacial advance, or maxima, whereas the Treene represents an interstadial period of glacial retreat between the early Drente and the late Warthe. In the region of central Europe, the Saale is represented by three glacial maxima separated by two periods, or interstadials, of moderating climatic conditions. One of the main features is a complex series of end-moraines, demarcating the maximum extent of ice sheets. These ice sheets flowed out from centers in Scandinavia, across the Baltic Sea and into northern Europe and Russia. The end-moraines are split into two sets: one called the Drenthe moraines (or Dnieper), and the Warthe moraines (Moscow in the USSR). These formations are complex and each seems to represent several 'pulses' of the ice-sheet edge. The Saale Glacial Stage was named for the German river, a tributary of the Elbe.
Sabaean
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: One of four major peoples / kingdoms of southern Arabia in the 1st millennium BC, contemporary with the Minaeans, Qatabanians, and Hadramites. The Sabaean capital was at Marib (Ma'rib). The people who called themselves Saba' (biblical Sheba) are both the earliest and the most abundantly attested in the surviving written records. Sabaean rulers -- who are mentioned in Assyrian annals of the late 8th and early 7th centuries BC -- were responsible for impressive cultural and irrigational constructions. Two secondary centers were Sirwah, on a tributary of the Wadi Dhana above the dam, and Nashq (now Al-Bayda'), at the western end of Wadi Al-Jawf.
Sabatinovka
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sabatinivka
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An area in the western Ukraine with several Tripolye sites, the most important being of the early 4th millennium BC and then a late Tripolye site yielding a knot-headed copper pin comparable to early Unetice metalwork of the early 2nd millennium BC. A later site forms the eponymous site of the Ukrainian aspect of the Nova-Sabatinovka-Bilogrudivka culture, a mid-2nd millennium BC culture found also in north Rumania and Podolia. Most settlement sites are unfortified lowland camps, whose large quantities of ash in domestic debris inspired the term 'zolniki' (ash-pits). Timber-framed houses on stone foundations are organized along streets at some sites.
sabbakhin
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: Arabic word for diggers of sabbakh, nitrogenous earth from ancient sites used as fertilizer. Sabbakh may be mud brick or remains of organic refuse. Sabbakhin are among the chief agents of destruction of ancient sites.
saber
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: sabre
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A curved sword designed to cut with used by cavalry.
Sabratha
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Greek Habrotonon, Roman Sabratha
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Roman port on the north African coast in Libya, remarkable for its extensive imperial Roman remains. Originally settled by the Phoenicians in the 5th century BC, Sabratha was one of the three cities of Roman Tripolitania. Together with neighboring Oea and Leptis Magna, it made up a trio of wealthy trading cities, the 'Tripolis', which were important in linking the Mediterranean sea-routes to the trans-Saharan caravans. It was first annexed by Rome in 46 BC, and subsequently granted colonia status in the 2nd century AD. The city enjoyed great prosperity under the early empire. Sacked by the Austuriani in about 363, Sabratha recovered to have a second period of prosperity under Byzantine rule, when new walls were constructed enclosing a smaller area. Urban occupation seems to have been abandoned after Arab seizure in 643. Among the surviving buildings are the various bath buildings and the Antonine-period theater.
Sabz, Tepe
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Tell site in Khuzestan in southwest Iran which has given its name to a cultural phase succeeding the Muhammad Jafar phase, c 5500-5250 BC. It is characterized by the appearance of painted pottery, buff-colored with geometric designs executed in black paint. Evidence suggests that irrigation agriculture was practiced, and flax, emmer, barley, and pulses cultivated. By approximately 6000 BC, patterns of village farming were widely spread over much of the Iranian Plateau and in lowland Khuzestan. It has yielded evidence of fairly sophisticated patterns of agricultural life and general cultural connections with the beginnings of settled village life in neighboring areas such as Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Soviet Central Asia, and Mesopotamia.
Saccopastore
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Palaeolithic site in a quarry near Rome, Italy, which has yielded two human skulls. These are regarded as early or generalized Neanderthals (Neanderthaloid) and are believed to belong to the last Interglacial. The brain sizes of both skulls are smaller than classic Neanderthals. A few Mousterian stone tools were found associated with them.
sacellum
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: sacred spot
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: A term for a small enclosure an altar and consecrated to a divinity. The term also means small monumental chapels within churches.
sache
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: Mayan term for a raised causeway made of stone blocks and paved with gravel and plaster.
sacramentary
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Book containing the prayers and order of ceremony used at (Catholic) church services.
sacred
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: Worthy of religious veneration; pertaining to beliefs or propositions so valued that they are unquestioned. Also, of or relating to religion.
sacrifice
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: Many societies in various parts of the world and at different times have practiced animal or human sacrifice or both. One of the best-known examples in the Old World is the Mesopotamian city of Ur's Royal Cemetery. The Vedic and Hindu religions of India also have a complicated system of sacrifice. In the New World, the practice of animal and human sacrifice was an aspect of almost all Mesoamerican cultures and dates back into the early Formative Period, c 6000-4800 BC. The extreme expression of sacrifice occurs in the Post-Classic, especially under the Aztec, whose perception of the universe as a continuing battle between the forces of generation and destruction made sacrifice a prerequisite for the continuation of the world. Sacrifice is fundamentally a religious act that has been of profound significance to individuals and social groups throughout history.
Sacsahuamán or Sacsayhuaman
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An immense fortified Inca complex, built as an adjunct to the Incan capital at Cuzco, Peru, and begun some time after 1438. Thought to have functioned as a storage center and military garrison in peacetime, it was used as a safe haven for Cuzco residents in times of danger. Its north-facing limestone walls are Cyclopean and the remains of round towers are still visible. They are built on a zigzag sawtooth plan and the interior structures are built on three rising terraces and include storage and dwelling places, a reservoir and a conduit supply system. It is said to have been constructed over a period of 80 years with the labor of 20,000 Incans.
saddle quern
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: Ancient device for milling by pounding, a round stone rolled or rubbed on a flat stone bed. It is the earliest-known example, along with the mortar and pestle, of milling equipment and invented in Neolithic times (before 5600 BC). It consisted of a large, slightly concave, lower stone and a smaller upper stone. Grain spread on the surface of the lower stone was ground by being rubbed over with the upper stone.
saex
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: In Old English, a single-edged knife or cleaver; examples are commonly found in Saxon and Anglo-Saxon graves. Continental versions have a curving back while English types (late 6th century AD and later) are straight-backed with an angle near the point.
saff tomb
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: A type of rock-cut tomb of the Theban 11th Dynasty that consisting of a row of openings -- or colonnade -- in the hillside. They were constructed primarily in the el-Tarif area of western Thebes for the local rulers of the 11th Dynasty (Intef I-III, 2125-2055 BC). The term 'saff' (Arabic for 'row') refers to the rows of rock-cut pillars which stood around three sides of a large trapezoidal sunk forecourt, forming the distinctive frontage of each of the tomb chapels. Private saff tombs have also been excavated at Armant and Dendera.
saggar
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: sagger, seggar
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A container made of refractory clay used to protect clay articles and glazes from flames and gases during firing
sagittal crest
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: The crest along the top of the skull where the chewing muscles are attached, found only in very large-jawed species. In primates that have large jaws and well-developed chewing muscles (e.g., gorillas, orangutans, and baboons), the parietal bones may be continued upward at the midline to form a sagittal crest. Among early hominids, Paranthropus (also called Australopithecus robustus) sometimes exhibited a sagittal crest.
sago
CATEGORY: flora
DEFINITION: A food starch prepared from carbohydrate material stored in the trunks of several palms, native from Indonesia to Samoa. This starch can be washed out from the chopped pith of felled trees, and then cooked into porridge or cakes. Sago was utilized and traded widely around coastal New Guinea and the Mouccas Islands. Sago starch was important in early diets in equatorial Indonesia and Melanesia.
Sagvar
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Upper Palaeolithic site in Hungary with radiocarbon dates of 18,900-17,760 bp. The artifacts, including endscrapers, are of the Gravettian.
Sagvardzhile
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Upper Palaeolithic and Neolithic cave site in western Georgia on the Shavitskhali-Dzevrula River. The Upper Palaeolithic layer includes points and scrapers dating to 30,000-25,000 bp. There are also Palaeolithic remains mixed with Neolithic after redepositing.
Sahel
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sahil
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Grassland zone in the southern Sahara Desert, which is occupied by pastoral peoples. This semiarid region of western and north-central Africa extends from Senegal eastward to the Sudan. It forms a transitional zone between the arid Sahara to the north and the belt of humid savannas to the south. The Sahel (shore" in Arabic) stretches from the Atlantic Ocean eastward through northern Senegal southern Mauritania the great bend of the Niger River in Mali Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) southern Niger northeastern Nigeria south-central Chad and into the Sudan."
Sahul Shelf
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sahul shelf
CATEGORY: geography
DEFINITION: The shallow ocean shelf between Australia and New Guinea, at its narrowest under the present Torres Strait; the continental shelf which comprises Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania. The shelf was exposed as dry land at periods of low sea-level in the Pleistocene, and New Guinea and Australia share a linked prehistory until the Torres Strait was finally drowned between 6000-4500 BC.
Sai
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Island in Upper Nubia with a cemetery of the Kerma culture.
Sai Yok
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A rock-shelter site in western Thailand with a sequence from a possibly pre-Hoabinhian industry, Hoabinhian, and a Neolithic assemblage of Ban Kao type. The sequence could have the longest record of Hoabinhian development in southeast Asia. The pre-ceramic phase had pebble tools c 10,000-8000 BC. The term is also applied to the pebble tools.
Sailendra
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A Mahayana Buddhist empire established in Java in the 8th century. Its name ('King of the Mountain') has been seen as the claim to 'Universal Rulership', taken over from the kings of Funan. In the 9th century, the dynasty left Java for Sumatra where they continued to hold power for several centuries.
Saint-Blaise
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Site near the mouth of the Rhône in France with Greek pottery from the 7th century BC. There are also quantities of Etruscan bucchero and the remains of the Hellenistic town.
Saint-Césaire
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Prehistoric rock shelter in Charente-Maritime, France, with Aurignacian, Châtelperronian, and Mousterian layers. A Neanderthal skeleton was found in the Châtelperronian level and dated to c 36,300 BP, perhaps one of the last Neanderthalers.
Saint-Michel-du-Touch
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Neolithic site with an enclosure of palisades and ditches in Haute-Garonne, France. There are many small structures which may be hut bases or hearths, all dating to the Chasséen, c 4500-3400 BC. A pit contained two rich burials.
Saintonge ware
CATEGORY: ceramics; culture
DEFINITION: Major pottery industry in the region of Saintes in western France from the 13th century until recent times. The best-known of these wares are the tall jugs with polychrome glazed decoration which appear to have been traded with western French wine to the English. The jugs exported were only one of the variety of wares made at centers like La Chapelle des Pots, where kilns and workshops have been excavated. Saintonge was originally the territory inhabited by the Santones, a Gallic tribe.
Sais
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sa el-Hagar
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Site in the Western Nile delta, capital of Egypt during the 26th Dynasty (664-525 BC). It was probably an impressive city; sculptural masterpieces from Sais have come from digging for sebbakh, which destroyed the tell. The remains are mostly covered by the modern village, and date principally to the 8th-6th centuries BC.
Saite
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: The 26th dynasty of Egypt (664-525 BC) is known as the Saite period as its pharaohs took Sais in the Delta as their capital. It was characterized by a notable revival in Egyptian art and Egyptian nationalism. The Saites were overthrown by the Persian invasion under Cambyses.
Sakçe Gözü or Sakjegeuzu
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sakçagöze, Sakje-Gözü
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A tell site in southeast Turkey, occupied in the Early Neolithic (comparable to Mersin) and a palace site of the Syro-Hittites of the early 1st millennium BC. The latter has produced quantities of important reliefs and inscriptions. The Neolithic period had a sequence of wares relating the Amuq and Halaf pottery styles. The fortification walls, nearly 12 feet thick, were strengthened by projecting external buttresses and by turrets at the corners. The palace was approached through a portico with a beautiful series of sculptures showing strong Assyrian influence. The whole mound was composed of stratified debris of the 5th and early 4th millennia BC.
Sakas
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: Iranian steppe people from central Asia organized into a confederacy which, like that of the Scythians (to whom they were related), brought together tribes of agriculturists and of nomadic herdsmen. They took part in the great movement of peoples which swept away the Greek kingdom of Bactria in the mid-2nd century BC. After being repulsed by the Parthians, the Sakas settled in Drangiana (Seistan) and in the Indus Valley. They also held Kandahar for a short time.
Sakazhia
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Middle and Upper Palaeolithic cave site in western Georgia on the Tskhaltsitela River. Assemblages include scrapers and denticulates from the Middle Palaeolithic and backed blades and points of the Upper Palaeolithic. Skeletal fragments classified as Neanderthal are in one of the lower levels of the Middle Palaeolithic.
Saladoid series
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Saladero, Salader
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: A group of related pottery styles found along the Orinoco River in Venezuela and named after the type site at Saladero. Saladoid pottery is thin and fine, painted with white or red designs, especially white-on-red; the utilitarian wares include flat plates or griddles for making manioc bread. The everted bell, often with tabular lugs, is the favored vessel form. The Saladoid tradition may have begun before 2000 BC and lasted in some area up to c 1000 AD. Some Saladoid groups migrated to Trinidad, Virgin Islands, and the Antilles during the early centuries AD, and this movement may represent the Arawak colonization of the West Indies.
Salamis (Cyprus)
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A principal city of prehistoric and classic Cyprus, located on the east coast of the island, north of modern Famagusta. According to the Homeric epics, Salamis was founded after the Trojan War by the archer Teucer, who came from the island of Salamis, off Attica. This literary tradition probably reflects the Sea Peoples' occupation of Cyprus (c 1193 BC). Later, the city grew because of its harbor; it became the chief Cypriot outlet for trade with Phoenicia, Egypt, and Cilicia. Salamis came under Persian control in 525 BC. In 306 BC, Demetrius I Poliorcetes of Macedonia won a great naval victory there over Ptolemy I of Egypt. Salamis was sacked in the Jewish revolt of 115-117 AD and suffered repeatedly from earthquakes. It was completely rebuilt by the Christian emperor Constantius II (reigned 337-361 AD) and given the name Constantia. Under Christian rule, Salamis was the metropolitan see of Cyprus. Destroyed again by the Arabs under Mu'awiyah (c 648), the city was then abandoned. There is a large area of surviving ruins, and an extensive necropolis to the west. The Mycenaean settlement was probably at Enkomi. Most remarkable are the so-called 'Royal Tombs', perhaps dating from the Late Geometric period, featuring large dromoi. The burial chambers are constructed of large rectangular blocks and have gable roofs, but were robbed in antiquity. There is an association with horse-and-chariot funerary rites, and horse skeletons still complete with bit in mouth have been discovered. There are also bronze horse accouterments, and cauldron and tripod, and ivory furniture. One tomb shows evidence for an original upper beehive structure or tholos; other tombs are rock-cut and show evidence for rites involving pyres and clay figurines.
Salamis (Greece)
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An island and town of Attikí, Greece, the site of the straits in which the Greeks won a decisive naval victory over the Persians in 480 BC. The invading forces of Xerxes and the Persians were beaten off. The city was occupied form the Bronze Age and chamber tombs of the Early Iron Age had remains of the social elite.
Salcuta
CATEGORY: culture; site
DEFINITION: A Late Neolithic culture and site of southwestern Romania c 3500-2500 BC. It derives from the Vinca culture, with further influence from the Aegean. By its end, copper was coming into use. There are four main occupation phases in the tell stratigraphy. The pottery is typically a dark burnished wares, contemporaneous to the Gumelnita and other Balkan cultures, and crusted painted wares. The Late Copper Age levels are characterized by unpainted pottery with 'Furstenstich' decoration and with affinities to Cotofeni and Baden pottery.
Saliagos
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Neolithic village on an islet once part of a peninsula joining Paros and Antiparos in the Cyclades of the Aegean. The community that lived here c 4200-3700 BC lived largely by tunny fishing, although farming was also practiced. Tanged points of Melian obsidian were common, as was painted pottery, with white designs on a dark ground. Parian marble was used to produce stylized fiddle-shaped idols, ancestral to the better known figurines of the later Cycladic Bronze Age.
Salinar
CATEGORY: ceramics; culture
DEFINITION: A pottery style which followed Cupisnique in the Chicama and Virú Valleys of north Peru, c 200 BC-200 AD. It is distinguished by modeled vessels, pots with stirrup spouts, and whistling jars. Some vessels have simple white patterns over a red slip. The transition from Cupisnique is evidenced in a shift from reduced-fired to oxidized-fired ceramics and the introduction of new forms and decorative techniques. Salinar introduces the handle-and-spout vessel, although the Chavinoid stirrup-spout form continues. The characteristic decoration is broad white painted bands and dots, sometimes outlined with incision. Salinar gave way to the Gallinazo and then Mochica styles.
Salinas La Blanca
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Early Formative village site on the left bank of the Narajo River near Ocos, Guatemala. The principal features of the site are two low house-mounds constructed of clay and household debris and dating to 1000-850 BC. A typical household cluster consisted of the house and outdoor hearth, a number of 'borrow pits' (dug to obtain clay) and a sherd-and-shell midden. Large numbers of primitive corn cobs indicate some farming.
salt-glazed stoneware
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: In the 14th century AD it was found that the addition of salt to the kiln gases during the firing of stoneware meant that the salt volatilized and the resultant sodium chloride vapor fluxed with the silicas in the body of the vessels to form a soda-glass glaze. As a further refinement, a brown-colored surface could be achieved by coating the vessels in a thin iron wash before firing. A patent was granted for the manufacture of such salt-glazed wares in England in 1671.
salvage
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: An emergency survey and excavation at a site that is threatened by immediate destruction due to human development or natural phenomena.
salvage archaeology
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: rescue archaeology; cultural resource management
CATEGORY: branch
DEFINITION: The branch of archaeology devoted to studying artifacts and features on sites which are imminently threatened by development in the form of the construction of dams, buildings, highways, etc. Threats to archaeological remains occur in the form of road-building, road improvement, new building of houses, offices, and industrial complexes, the flooding of valleys for reservoirs, and improved farming techniques involving the use of deep plowing. The rescue, or salvage, archaeologist, is concerned with the retrieval of as much information as possible about the archaeological sites before they are damaged or destroyed. Salvage archaeology is the location, recording (usually through excavation), and collection of archaeological data from a site in advance of highway construction, drainage projects, or urban development. In the US, the first major program of salvage archaeology was undertaken in the 1930s, ahead of the construction and dam building done by the Tennessee Valley Authority.
Salzgitter-Lebenstedt
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Mousterian hunting site in northwest Germany near Hanover, dated to c 50,000 BP. It yielded reindeer and mammoth remains hunted by Middle Palaeolithic men and an eastern Mousterian assemblage with some western Mousterian artifact-forms. Human skull fragments were found, possibly dating from early in the last glacial period.
Salzofen Cave
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Cave site in southeast Austria with artifacts of the Middle Palaeolithic and Neolithic.
Samaria
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Palestinian site which was the capital of the northern Kingdom of Israel. After a sporadic Early Bronze Age occupation, the city was founded by Omri, king of Israel, in 880 BC, and the earliest, and very fine, buildings and planning are attributed to him and his son, Ahab. Influence of the Phoenicians is visible, especially in a collection of carved ivories comparable to those of Nimrud. To c 800 belongs a group of ostraca, throwing light on political conditions and the development of the Hebrew script. The site continued to be occupied after its destruction by the Assyrians c 721 BC. It regained importance in the Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine periods. Omri had a palace defended by walls of ashlar masonry.
Samarkand
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Samarqand, Maracanda
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: City in east-central Uzbekistan that is one of the oldest cities of Central Asia. In the 4th century BC, then known as Maracanda, it was the capital of Sogdiana and was captured (329 BC) by Alexander the Great. It benefited from its location in a fertile oasis at the point where the Silk Route from the West divided, one branch proceeding to China and other to India. Excavations have revealed abundant Graeco-Sogdiana material. A palace of the 6th or 7th century AD yielded wall paintings comparable with the famous paintings from Pendzhikent.
Samarra
CATEGORY: site; culture
DEFINITION: Islamic city of the Abbasid dynasty, mid-8th to mid-10th century AD, founded as the new capital in 836 AD on the Tigris River in central Iraq. Its Neolithic culture, 6th millennium BC, was remarkable for its elaborate painted pottery with geometric or naturalistic patterns. At that time, it was characterized by large villages with complex, multi-room buildings, and introduction of irrigated agriculture and cattle rearing. The pottery, found mainly in the Samarra cemetery, replaced Hassuna ware, on which it marked a considerable advance. It was absorbed by the Halaf tradition c 5000 BC. It is a rich source of information on early Islamic architecture, public monuments, and town planning.
Samarran culture complex
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: Cultural phase of east-central Irqu along the Tigris River which dates to the second half of the 6th and early 5th millennium BC, with sites such as Tell es Sawwan and Choga Mami. There are three phases of the complex: Early Samarran with coarse ware decorated by incision, Middle Samarran with painted pottery using naturalistic scenes and geometric designs; and Last Samarran with more geometric painted pottery and no naturalistic scenes. The Samarrans used irrigation agriculture and herding of animals, both important to the developing Mesopotamian civilizations.
Sambaquí
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sambaqui tradition
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: Shell middens along the Brazilian coast, north of Rio de Janeiro. The oldest debris was left by non-agricultural peoples who used no pottery and who made artifacts of chipped and polished stone (axes, adzes, choppers). The middens are of widely differing ages, from the 6th millennium BC until the centuries before the European conquest. There are also well-finished polished stone effigies (usually of birds or fish) which have a basin-like depression in the back. Probably of ceremonial significance, it has been suggested that these effigies were used in the ritual taking of snuff.
Sambor Prei Kuk
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Zhenla
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Early historic center southeast of Angkor, Cambodia, likely the capital of the pre-Angkor Khmer state of Isanapura (7th-8th centuries AD).
Sambungmachan
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sambungmatjan
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: The find-site on the Solo River, Java, of Homo erectus ancestor fossils (specifically a cranium) with Middle or Upper Pleistocene faunal associations. It is perhaps slightly earlier than the population from Ngadndong, further downstream on the Solo River. Some stone tools were found at Sambungmachan, believed to be the first found in the same context as Homo erectus in Java.
Samguk Sagi
CATEGORY: language
DEFINITION: Historical record of the Three Kingdoms, the earliest surviving history for Korea. It was compiled by Kim Pu-sik in 1146 AD during the Koryo dynasty.
Samhan
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: In Korea, the collective name for the Mahan, P'yonhan, and Chinhan protohistoric peoples during the Proto-Three Kingdoms period. Literally, three Han" these people lived in the southern half of the Korean peninsula. Small polities are thought to have risen into the states of Paekche Kaya and Silla from the Samhan."
Samian ware
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Terra Sigillata, terra sigillata ware
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: A distinctive Roman pottery produced mainly in south and central Gaul and the Moselle valley in the first century BC and first three centuries AD; later it was made in Britain (Colchester). It was copied from Italian Arretine ware and was itself widely imitated. It is a red ware with a bright glossy surface, plain or elaborately decorated by means of molds. Its second name derives from the stamp with which the pottery frequently added his name to his products. The maker's name was stamped on the pottery, but the decorations, the shape, the fabric, all help in dating and tracing its origin. The shapes come from metal prototypes. The forms, decorations, and stamps have allowed a detailed chronology to be established. The wares provide a valuable means of dating the other archaeological material found with them.
Samoa
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A major island group in the south-central Pacific Ocean about 1,600 miles (2,600 km) northeast of New Zealand. American Samoa, a dependency of the United States, consists of the six islands. Western Samoa, an independent nation, consists of the nine islands. The islands were settled by Lapita colonists in the late 2nd millennium BC. There is a pottery sequence through the 1st millennium BC, after which pottery manufacture ceases. On the evidence of adze typology, Samoa may have been the source of the first settlers to penetrate eastern Polynesia, perhaps to the Marquesas, in the early 1st millennium AD. The last 1500 years of Samoan prehistory are associated with above-ground monuments, including earthwork forts, earth or stone houses, god-house platforms, and agricultural terraces.
Samos
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Greek island in the Aegean just off mainland western Asia Minor. There is evidence of Early Neolithic occupancy on the south coast, near Tigáni. About the 11th century BC, the Ionians appeared and by the 7th century BC the island was one of the leading commercial centers of Greece. The tyrant Polycrates ruled from c 540 BC, in what was perhaps the golden age of Samos. He ruled in alliance with the Egyptian pharaoh and had a powerful fleet that blockaded the Persian-controlled mainland until his death c 522 BC. Samos was part of Delian league of Aegean states and then eclipsed by Rhodes in Hellenistic times. Ruins include the late 5th-century BC Temple of Hera and sanctuary and an aqueduct tunnel about 3/4 mi. (1 km) long. Samos was the birthplace of the mathematician and philosopher Pythagoras.
sample
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: Any subset of a population; a set of units selected from a population. In statistics, a sample refers to a representative group of objects, cases or items, selected from a larger population. The degree to which a sample is truly representative is controlled by the size of the sample and biasing factors affecting its selection. The larger the sample and the smaller the bias, the more representative the sample. All groups of archaeological material are samples, selected through preservation and choice of site, of an original population. The term sample is also used to describe the small sections cut from artifacts in order to do dating and analysis.
sample assemblage
CATEGORY: fauna
DEFINITION: The portion of the fossil assemblage that has been excavated or collected and then analyzed.
sample data acquisition
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: Investigation of only a portion of the sample units in a population, by either probabilistic or nonprobabilistic sampling.
sample element
CATEGORY: measure
DEFINITION: A member of a sample, which can be a space, a time period, or a countable entity.
sample fraction
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: The percentage of a sample universe that is surveyed
sample selection, random
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A method of selecting a sample in which every element has a known and equal probability of selection.
sample selection, systematic
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A method of selecting a sample in which the first element is drawn randomly and the others are selected at predetermined intervals. Samples are arranged in a regular pattern to ensure even coverage with only the starting point chosen randomly.
sample size
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: The total number of sample units drawn from a sampling frame or population.
sample unit
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: The basic unit of archaeological investigation; a subdivision of the data universe. It is an arbitrary or nonarbitrary unit of the data universe, used for sampling archaeological data.
sample universe
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: The region containing the statistical population to be sampled, determined by the research question
sample, quadrat
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: An archaeological research design in which the sampling element is a square or rectangular grid.
sample, transect
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: An archaeological research design in which the sampling element is a fairly long linear unit.
sampling
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: The process of selecting part of a site for excavation or an area for fieldwork, preferably according to a strategy which allows statistical estimates and generalizations of the relation of the sample to the unexplored parts of the whole site or area. In a way, all archaeological fieldwork and excavation is sampling, since it is impossible to collect all the data from the complex mass of an archaeological site. Selection may be arbitrary or nonarbitrary -- perhaps by the need for particular evidence for a specific question (a 'judgment sample'); the question itself will be determined by the existing framework of archaeological thought. In a more specific sense, sampling or probabilistic or random sampling, uses the theory of probability to make estimates of how closely the observations obtained from the part examined ('sample') represent the characteristics of the whole group being studied ('population'), by using fixed rules of random selection so that each unit is given a known chance of selection. The area under study may be divided into sub-zones (strata) and each stratum can be sampled separately to give a more precise estimate of the whole population. The choice of sample design, the size of the sample units, and the proportion of the population sampled (the sampling fraction) will all affect the result, but even with quite small fractions accurate estimates of the entire population of sites within an area can be obtained. The method is particularly good at estimating the number of different types of site within the area. Methods are also being developed for the sampling of large groups of artifacts; excavations frequently produce very large quantities of bone or flint, and it has been shown that often it is necessary to study only a small sample of the whole population to obtain a reliable estimate of its character.
sampling element
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: The object of study in a probability sample.
sampling fraction
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: The total number of sample units drawn from a sampling frame, expressed as a percentage of the population size.
sampling frame
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A list of sample units from which a sample is drawn.
sampling strategy
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: The plan for selecting a sample, including the type of sample element, the sampling frame, sample size, and method of selection.
sampling universe
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: The set of all possible elements to be considered in a probability sample.
Sampung
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Area in east-central Java and name of a mid-Holocene industry characterized by stone points and bone tools. The sites include Gua Lawa, Gunung Cantalan, Petpuruh, Sodong, and Marjan.
Samrong Sen
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Late prehistoric settlement site in central Cambodia, c 1000 BC, with polished stone adzes and bronze implements.
Samuilitsa II
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithic cave site on the Iskr River in Bulgaria. The layers date back to the early Last Glacial and the upper layers are estimated to 42,780 bp. Artifacts include scrapers and bifacial foliates.
San
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Bushmen
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: The hunter-gatherer people of southern Africa who once lived throughout the region and spoke a number of languages before becoming absorbed into agricultural societies. They were a nomadic egalitarian society with small bands of about 20 people. Men hunted with bow-and-arrow and women gathered plant foods. Their record provides insights into Later Stone Age remains and rock art. By late 20th century, many San had become laborers and trackers in settled areas. They are part of the Capoid local race, a subgroup, of the Negroid (African) geographic race (also comprised of the Khoikhoin (Hottentots)). The most striking feature of the San languages is their extensive use of click sounds.
San Agustín
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A locality in the south Colombian Andes highland, with a number of cemeteries, house platforms, ancient fields, stone-built chambers underneath mounds, and also a series of more than 300 stone statues representing mythological personages, some of them with jaguar fangs. The mounds commonly have internal stone-lined passageways and chambers, some of which contain sculpture, suggesting their use as places of worship as well as burial. Sculptures are rendered in a variety of techniques but are usually freestanding stelae and can be up to four meters high. Though stylistic comparisons are often made with Chavin, these themes have strong parallels in Olmec iconography. Occupation extends from about 700 BC almost to the Spanish conquest. The spectacular stonework falls somewhere between 500 BC and 1500 AD. There is also incised and modeled pottery and gold ornaments from the underground burial chambers.
San Dieguito complex
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: Late Palaeoindian complex of California, southwestern Nevada, and western Arizona, c 8000-7000 BC. Characteristic artifacts are leaf-shaped biface points or knives, choppers, scrapers, and hammerstones. It postdates the Clovis in local sequences. this tradition was distinct from the Desert Culture in its reliance on hunting rather than gathering.
San José Mogote
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: The largest of a number of Zapotec village communities which developed in the Pre-Classic or Formative Period in central Oaxaca, Mexico, before 1300 BC. Agriculture was practiced by 'pot irrigation', direct watering from a well. There is evidence of Olmec influence and by c 900 BC the village had grown to 20 hectares. There were small lower-class residences, public buildings, and workshops. Artifacts include debris from 'prized' minerals such as ilmenite, hematite, mica, and green quartz; as well as finished goods of Olmec origin. These suggest that San Jose Mogote was a manufacturing site of shell ornaments and magnetite mirrors and was part of an Olmec-controlled trade system.
San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan / San Lorenzo
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: The oldest-known Olmec center, located in Veracruz, Mexico, and revealing information on Olmec origins. It was a large nucleated village flourishing during the Early Formative. The first phase of occupation (Ojochi, c 1800-1650 BC) left no architectural traces, but during the next period (Bajío, 1650-1550 BC) a start was made on the artificial plateau with lateral ridges forming the base of most subsequent structures. The Chicharras phase (1550-1450 BC) foreshadows true Olmec in its pottery, figurines, and perhaps also in stone-carving. The San Lorenzo phase (1450-1100 BC) marks the Olmec climax at the site, whose layout then resembled that of La Venta. The principal features of the site are a large platform mound and a cluster of smaller mounds surrounding what may be the earliest ball court in Mesoamerica; more than 200 house mounds are clustered around these central features. A system of carved stone drains underlying the site is a unique structural feature. Around 900 BC, the stone monuments were mutilated and buried upon the center's collapse. La Venta then came to power. The monuments weighed as much as 44 tons and were carved from basalt from the Cerro Cintepec, a volcanic flow in the Tuxtla Mountains about 50 air miles to the northwest. It is believed that the stones were somehow dragged down to the nearest navigable stream and from there transported on rafts up the Coatzacoalcos River to the San Lorenzo area. The amount of labor involved must have been enormous, indicating a complex social system to ensure the task's completion. Most striking are the colossal heads human portraits on a stupendous scale, the largest of which is 9 feet high. After a short hiatus, the site was reoccupied by a group whose culture still shows late Olmec affinities (Palangana phase, 800-450 BC), but was again abandoned until 900 AD when it was settled by early post-Classic (Villa Alta) people who used plumbate and fine orange pottery. The collapse of San Lorenzo c 1150/1100 BC was abrupt and violent. The population was forced to do its agricultural work well outside the site, which may have contributed to the center's collapse.
San Pedro
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: The final chronological period of the Cochise culture in the Atacama region of northern Chile, contemporaneous with Tiahuanaco in Bolivia, c 500-1000 AD. Polychrome kero or beaker-shaped vessels are found in graves and typically, tool assemblages contain seed-grinding tools such as manos and metates, mortars and pestles, and a variety of projectile points, including the narrow stemmed, side-notched type which first appeared during Chiricahua. Pit houses (houses of poles and earth built over pits) are also characteristic. During the San Pedro stage, pottery appeared in the area of the Mogollon Indians. The Cochise tradition may be taken as the base for subsequent cultural developments among various Indians in the Southwest.
San Vicnezo al Volturno
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An important Benedictine monastery in central Italy, founded in the early 8th century and sacked by the Arabs in 881 and eventually abandoned. The site appears to overlie a late Roman complex. A crypt of c 830 is an example of an important painting technique of the time.
San'in
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: District of Honshu Island, Japan, used in archaeological documents, comprising parts of modern Kyoto and Hyogo prefectures, and Tottori and Shimane prefectures.
San'yo
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: District of Honshu Island, Japan, used in archaeological documents, comprising modern Yamaguchi, Hiroshima, and Okayama prefectures and part of Hyogo prefecture.
Sanchi
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: The site of three stupas in central India. They are the Great Stupa, Stupa No. 1, an Ashokan foundation enlarged over the centuries; No. 2, with railing decorations of the late Shunga period (c 1st century BC); and No. 3, with its single toran (ceremonial gateway) of the late 1st century BC-1st century AD. Other features of interest include a commemorative pillar erected by the emperor Ashoka (c 265-238 BC); an early Gupta temple (temple No. 17), early 5th century, with a flat roof and pillared portico; and monastic buildings ranging over several centuries. Sanchi sculpture is the early Indian style embellishing the 1st-century-BC gateways of the Buddhist relic mound called the Great Stupa. The region of Sanchi, however, had a continuous artistic history from the 3rd century BC to the 11th century AD.
sand
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: A term describing the size of sediment or soil particles, 0.06-2 mm in diameter (BS 1377). The term has no implications of color, organic content, or any property other than particle size or texture.
sand glass
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: hourglass
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A reversible device for measuring time by the transfer of sand from upper to lower glass bulb.
Sandai
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: Chinese for three periods": the Xia Shang and Chou (Zhou) of protohistoric China."
Sandalja I
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Lower Palaeolithic site in Croatia dating to the Lower Pleistocene, with chopping tool artifacts.
Sandia Cave
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sandia point
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Type site for a tanged and unfluted projectile point in New Mexico's Sandia Mountains. This cave has yielded artifacts of the so-called Sandia Man" (25 000 BC). In Pueblo mythology the Sandias were sacred marking the southern boundary of the Tiwa-speaking Indian territory. Sandia points were stratified below Folsom points but the radiocarbon dates of pre-20 000 BC are often discounted the true date probably falling in the range 12000-8000 BC overlapping with Clovis. Associated fauna of bison mammoth and mastodon suggested contemporaneity with the Llano Complex. Sandia Type I has a lanceolate blade without fluting and without concave base of Clovis/Folsom and a shoulder to one side of the base of the blade suggesting knife use. Sandia Type II has rounded base."
Sandia point
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sandia projectile point
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: type site for a tanged and unfluted projectile point in New Mexico's Sandia Mountains. This cave has yielded artifacts of the so-called ""Sandia Man"" (25,000 BC). In Pueblo mythology the Sandias were sacred, marking the southern boundary of the Tiwa-speaking Indian territory. Sandia points were stratified below Folsom points but the radiocarbon dates of pre-20,000 BC are often discounted, the true date probably falling in the range 12000-8000 BC, overlapping with Clovis. Associated fauna of bison, mammoth, and mastodon suggested contemporaneity with the Llano complex. Sandia type I has a lanceolate blade without fluting and without concave base of Clovis/Folsom and a shoulder to one side of the base of the blade, suggesting knife use. Sandia Type II has rounded base.
sandshaker
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A container for sand which was used to stop ink from spreading.
sandstone
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Sedimentary rock consisting of sand or quartz grains cemented together, typically red, yellow, or brown in color.
sandwich glass
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Any of various forms of glassware manufactured at Sandwich, Mass., from 1825 to c1890.
sandy loam
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: Sandy sediment containing enough clay and silt to make it hold together rather than falling apart; consists of 50% sand, 30% silt, and 20% clay.
Sanga
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Important Iron Age cemetery in Upemba depression, southeastern Zaire. The numerous graves that have been investigated are attributed to the Kisalian and Kabambian industries dating from the end of the 1st millennium AD to the last two centuries. Isalian iron and copper objects and pottery are associated with the 11th-12th centuries AD.
Sangamonian
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sangamon, Sangamonia Age, Sangamonian Stage
CATEGORY: chronology
DEFINITION: The term in reference to Age" is a major North American geochronological subdivision of the Pleistocene epoch from c 125 000-75 000 bp. The Sangamon comprises a range of sediments including organic sediment but is represented mainly by a warm climate palaesol the Sangamon geosol which overlies Illinoian Age tills and is covered by Wisconsinan Age loess and tills. It appears to represent one single interglacial. As a "stage" it is a chronostratigraphic subdivision of the Pleistocene."
Sangiran
CATEGORY: site; culture
DEFINITION: Important site for Indonesian finds of Homo erectus in the Solo River valley of Java. Rich fossil-bearing deposits of both Middle Pleistocene (Trini fauna) and Lower Pleistocene (Djetis fauna) have yielded fossils of more than four hominid individuals from each level, including five skulls from the later level of perhaps c 0.5-1 million years ago. The name was also used for a stone small-flake industry of the Middle Pleistocene. The human-made flakes are now mainly attributed to the High Terrace Gravels of the late Pleistocene or the Holocene.
Sangoan
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: Stone tool industry or complex of Sango Bay in Uganda on Lake Victoria, a Mainly Middle Pleistocene series of assemblages containing heavy-duty picks (core axes), handaxes, scrapers, finely flaked lanceolate points, cleavers, and small specialized tools. The Sangoan may have developed from a late Acheulian basis, and which was roughly contemporary with the Mousterian of Europe, dating to 100,000-20,000 BP. The term is loosely applied to a rather heterogeneous group of industries in eastern and south-central Africa, and perhaps in West Africa, also. The most informative site for the composition and sequence of Sangoan industries is at Kalambo Falls, Zambia. In several regions of Zaire and neighboring countries, the Sangoan appears to mark the first human settlement of the low-lying country now occupied by the equatorial forest.
Sankalia, H.D. (1908- )
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: Indian archaeologist whose field work and publications have been important to the development of Indian archaeology. Comprehensive surveys and research papers, especially on the prehistory of the Deccan, include Archaeology in Rajasthan" (1988) "Prehistoric and Historic Archaeology of Gujarat" (1987) "The University of Nalanda" (1972) which recounts the history of one of the most important Buddhist monastic establishments."
Sankisa
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: ancient Samkashya
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Famous Buddhist pilgrimage center in the upper Ganges Valley, India, where the Buddha is said to have descended from heaven. It was visited by the emperor Asoka in his pilgrimage of 249 BC and retains the commemorative pillar with its elephant capital erected on that occasion.
Sanskrit
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sanscrit
CATEGORY: language
DEFINITION: A language of the Indo-Aryan branch of Indo-European, an early Indo-European language used by the Aryans of India, and still in use for Hindu religious texts. It is related to Greek and Latin and the most important early Indo-European language of northern India being, for several centuries, the medium for much Hindu and Buddhist religious writing. Vedic Sanskrit, based on a dialect of northwestern India, dates from as early as 1800 BC; it was described and standardized in the important grammar book by Panini, dating from about the 5th century BC. The Rigveda, the oldest religious document of India, was written in an archaic form of Sanskrit in the mid-1st millennium BC.
Santa Catalina de Guale
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Spanish mission site c 1566-1680 located on St. Catherines Island in Georgia (US).
Santa Isabel Iztapán
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Two mammoth kill-sites in southeast Chiapas, Mexico, with human occupation dating to 9250 years ago. At one site, a skeleton was found scrapers, knives, and blades of flint and obsidian, as well as a stemmed projectile point of flint. The second mammoth site yielded a chert knife, a leaf-shaped point of flint, and a lanceolate point with a flat base. Similar kill sites were found at San Bartolo Atepehuacan, on the outskirts of Mexico City and at Tepexpan. The site is important as an indicator of the rapidity with which newly arrived (Asian) hunters dispersed southward. Stone tools of both the Big Game Hunting Tradition and the Old Cordilleran Tradition were found in the same levels, which is puzzling and infers a combination of hunting techniques were used.
Santa Lucia
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An inhumation and cremation cemetery in Slovenia with more than 6,000 graves, dating to c 9th-2nd centuries BC. The graves' contents showed extensive trade with north Italy and central Europe. The Roman city of Emona (1st century BC) was located there.
Santubong
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A complex of sites on the coast of Sarawak, northern Borneo, most dating between 900-1350. It was a major port of that time, probably connected with the Chinese state called Po-ni. There is evidence of iron-smelting, large quantities of Chinese pottery, and local pottery of the Tanjong Kubor type.
sanukite
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: Type of andesite produced by now-extinct volcanoes in the Inland Sea area of Japan. It was used extensively during the Palaeolithic and Postglacial (Jomon, Yayoi) for stone tools.
Sao
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: Industry in Chari Basin, Chad, associated with mound sites and dating to the late 2nd millennium BC.
Saoura
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: In the northwest Sahara, a basin with a long sequence from the Oldowan, Acheulian, and Aterian. Called a wadi or oued, meaning ephemeral stream, the Saoura is the longest wadi, running nearly 600 miles south from the High Atlas to the Saharan interior, where it eventually dies out.
Sapalli-depe
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sapalli-Tepe
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Site in southern Uzbekistan with Middle to Late Bronze Age occupation. Data found there defines the Sapalli phase of regional chronology, mid-late 3rd millennium BC. There was a central square fortification and intramural burials with well-preserved organic remains.
Saqqara
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sakkara, Saqqarah
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: The site of the principal necropolis of the ancient city of Memphis, near Cairo, Egypt, used from the 2nd Dynasty to the Christian period. There are 15 royal pyramids, mainly of the Old Kingdom (c 2575-2130 BC), the most being the Step Pyramid erected by Imhotep for Djoser, pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty, c 2630 BC. The royal mastaba tombs of the nobility making up most of the cemetery have yielded much evidence on the Archaic Period. Also buried here, at the Serapeum, were the sacred Apis bulls. With the passage of time burial chambers were more massively constructed of stone, and eventually hewn from solid rock. There are a large number of important private tombs of the Archaic through the Graeco-Roman period.
Sarab, Tepe
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Early farming site near Kermanshah in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran dating c 6000-5650 BC. The most unusual finds are two female figurines, in the sitting position with bulging thighs and breasts, but without facial features.
sarcophagus
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A coffin or sepulchral chest of stone, wood, lead, or terra-cotta, typically carved or inscribed and intended to be exposed to view. In Egypt it was the outermost container, with one or more wooden coffins and a mummy case within. Greek for flesh-eater" or "flesh-swallowing" it is also the term for a kind of limestone reputed to consume the flesh of dead bodies. In the Classical world the term was used for a clay or marble container holding a corpse. Many were elaborately painted and in the Roman period elaborately carved."
Sardis
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sardes
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: City in western Anatolia (near Izmir, Turkey), associated with Croesus and the Lydians, the capital city of Lydia. The Lydian city, of the 7th-6th centuries BC, had an acropolis and walled lower settlement. From about 560-546 BC, Sardis was ruled by Croesus, who was renowned for his great wealth and was the last king of Lydia. Taken by the Persians (c 546 BC), Sardis fell in turn to the Athenians, the Seleucids, and the Attalids until bequeathed to the Romans in 133 BC. Among the ruins are the Palace of Croesus, Temple of Artemis, gold works, and grave mounds of the royal cemetery. It was first occupied in the Early Bronze Age and became the first city where gold and silver coins were minted. Leveled by an earthquake in 17 AD, the city was rebuilt and remained one of the great cities of Anatolia until the later Byzantine period. The Mongol Timur (Tamerlane) then destroyed it in 1402. Its ruins include the ancient Lydian citadel and about 1,000 Lydian graves. Excavations of Sardis have uncovered more remains of the Hellenistic and Byzantine city than of the Lydian town described by the Greek historian Herodotus.
Sargon (c 2330-2280 BC)
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sargon of Akkad
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: The founder of the Akkadian empire in the late 24th century BC, the first successful ruler of Mesopotamia. Sargon founded a new capital at Agade, conquering all of southern Mesopotamia as well as parts of Syria, Anatolia, and Elam (western Iran). He established the region's first Semitic dynasty and was considered the founder of the Mesopotamian military tradition. Sargon is known almost entirely from the legends and tales in 2,000 years of cuneiform Mesopotamian history, not from any documents that were written during his lifetime.
Sarka style
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: Variant of Linear Pottery of western Bohemia, c 3900 BC, parallel to the Zeliezovce in Slovakia and southern Poland. The vessels are painted in black spirals on buff before firing.
Sarmatian
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A people originally of Iranian stock who migrated from Central Asia to the Ural Mountains between the 6th-4th century BC and eventually settled in most of southern European Russia and the eastern Balkans. These nomadic tribes were related to Scythians and became a political and cultural force whose influence extended into central Asia and Transcaucasia, as well as into western Europe where the Sarmatians challenged the Romans before themselves being driven back by the Huns c 370 AD. Sarmatian art was strongly geometric, floral, and richly colored. They made jewelry in the form of rings, bracelets, diadems, brooches, gold plaques, buckles, buttons, and mounts and exceptional metalwork was found in the tombs, including gold openwork plaques, bronze bracelets, spears, swords, gold-handled knives, and gold jewelry and cups. The Sarmatians were also very experienced in horsemanship and warfare.
Sarmizegethusa
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Gradistea Muncelului; Varhély
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Late Iron Age town of eastern Rumania, seat of the Dacian state founded by Burebistas in the 1st century BC. A hilltop citadel is next to a sanctuary area with several shrines and temples. Bronze and iron products and pottery were made in an industrial area. In 101, Trajan led an invasion of Dacia (First Dacian War). The capital of Sarmizegethusa was captured, and Decebalus was forced in 102 to accept Roman occupation garrisons. In 105, Decebalus defeated the occupation forces and invaded Moesia (Second Dacian War). But, after Trajan seized Sarmizegethusa a second time (106), the defeated king committed suicide, and in 107 Dacia became a Roman province.
Sarnate
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A settlement site of the Late Mesolithic Narva culture, located in the southeast Baltic province of Latvia. The single culture level has radiocarbon dates of 2950-2250 BC and contains a rich collection of Narva pointed-base pottery and bone implements. A variety of wooden artifacts have been found on the waterlogged site.
Sarnath
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Site north of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh state, northern India, where, according to tradition, the Buddha first began teaching his followers. The emperor Ashoka visited the site on his pilgrimage of 249 BC and erected a stupa and the famous lion-capital memorial pillar. There is also a small temple, also of the 3rd century BC.
Sarnowo
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Site of Kuyavian long barrows in north-central Poland, dated c 3100-2900 BC. Traces of ard-marks have been preserved under one of the nine trapezoidal-plan barrows. They belong to the Funnel Beaker culture.
sarsens / sarsen
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: sarsen-stones
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: A type of sandstone of the Marlborough Downs in Wiltshire, England. The sarsens are the remnants of a cap of Tertiary period sandstone which once covered the area. They were used by the builders of Stonehenge, Avebury, and several megalithic chamber tombs. Stonehenge is almost 30 km from the quarry site.
Sarup
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Neolithic site in Funen, Denmark, with two enclosures -- Sarup I of the Fuchsberg phase (Early to Middle Neolithic) c 3400 BC and Sarup II of c 120 years later. About 12 Neolithic enclosures like this are known in southern Scandinavia.
Sassanian
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: The Persian dynasty which overthrew the Parthian empire in 224 AD and ruled until conquered by Islam in 651. The empire extended from India to Syria, where they fought with the Romans. Remains include rock reliefs, Sassanian metalwork, fine stamp seals, textiles. Archaeologically they are known from impressive architectural remains of palaces, temples, and fortifications and from the rock reliefs. Important Sassanian sites include Bishapur, Firuzabad, Naqsh-i Rustam, and Siraf.
satellite sensor imagery
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: scanner imagery
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A method of recording sites from the air using infrared radiation that is beyond the practical spectral response of photographic film. The method is useful for tracing prehistoric agricultural system.
Satet
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Satis
CATEGORY: deity
DEFINITION: Goddess associated with the island of Elephantine at Aswan and guardian of the southern frontiers of Egypt. She was Khnum's, the creator god, companion. She was depicted as wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt, with antelope horns on either side of it.
Satingpra
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Area on the east coast of Thailand with sites from the later 1st and early 2nd millennia AD, including Kok Moh, possibly associated with Langkasuka.
satrapy
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: One of the administrative units or provinces of the Achaemenid / Persian empire, e.g. Ionia, Media, Bactria. Each was ruled by a governor or satrap appointed by the king. Sometimes a satrapy became an appanage of the royal princes. A satrapy would consist of a collection of ethnic groups rather than a piece of land with precise boundaries. Inhabitants had to make payments (tribute) to the empire and provide military services. The division of the empire into satrapies was completed by Darius I (reigned 522-486 BC), who established 20 total. The satrapal administration was retained by Alexander III the Great and his successors.
Satruper Moor
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Region in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, with sites c 3500-3000 BC, the transition from foraging to sedentary lifestyle in northern Europe. Some of the sites are of the Ertebolle/Ellerbek culture with pointed-base pots.
Satsumon
CATEGORY: ceramics; culture
DEFINITION: A type of Haji-like incised-motif pottery made in early Hokkaido and northern Honshu, Japan, from c 4th-14th centuries, and to the culture characterized by this pottery. Satsumon houses are very much like Late Kofun houses. Iron tools were used and cloth was woven. The Satsumon culture is seen as the transformation of a Jomon-type culture, which continued late in northern Japan, as the result of the contacts with Haji-using people to the south. The people are thought to be the ancestors of the historic Ainu.
sauceboat
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: In Greek antiquity, a vessel of clay or metal made on mainland Greece or in the Cyclades in mid-late 3rd millennium BC. They seem to have been for drinking rather than pouring.
saucer brooch
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Circular brooch, concave in section, like a modern lapel badge, generally decorated in chip-carving. Distributed in the north German lowlands and in England, and dated to the 5th and 6th centuries AD
Sautuola, Marcellino Sanz de (1831-1888)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: Spanish amateur geologist and archaeologist who excavated Altamira Cave, near Santillana, in northern Spain, which contains the earliest known (c 13,000-20,000 BC) examples of Stone Age painting. The colored ceiling paintings in a side cavern, which came to be regarded as the Sistine Chapel of Prehistory" were the most spectacular. Sautuola had accurate drawings of the paintings prepared and published a book in 1880. He was unable to persuade scholars of the paintings' authenticity and died dishonored and bitter. Not until other similar paintings had been found in southwestern France (1895-1901) was Sautuola's contribution finally vindicated. "
Sauveterrian
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sauveterre-la-Lemance
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: An Early Mesolithic culture of France and neighboring parts of Europe, following the Azilian in c 9000 bp. It later spread to Britain and was contemporary with the Later Maglemosian. It is characterized by the lack of woodworking tools and by an abundance of geometric microliths. It is named after rock shelters in Sauveterre-la-Lémance, France. Sauveterrian related to 8000-4500 BC in southern half of France and it preceded the Tardenoisian.
Savernake ware
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Output from a substantial Roman pottery industry focused in northwest Wiltshire, especially the area now known as Savernake Forest. A number of kilns have been excavated and together suggest a nucleated industry comprising many separate workshops. The pottery itself is typically light grey in color, flint-tempered, with clay pellets and grog visible in the fabric. Typical products include jars, bowls, flagons, butt beakers, and platters. Output starts at about the time of the Roman conquest or a little before and continues through into the later 2nd century AD.
Sawwan, Tell es-
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Tall Sawwan
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: One of the earliest villages discovered in the plain of Mesopotamia, near Samarra, the best-known Samarran period site. A developmental sequence for the painted pottery was very important as was the uncovering of five architectural levels (pottery plain and crude, then monochrome, then polychrome). There is a large group of burials and evidence of crops, early irrigation, domestication of animals. The radiocarbon dates are in the second half of the 6th millennium BC. The earliest known moldmade bricks are from this site, which also has veined alabaster vessels and figurines.
Saxo-Norman pottery
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: General term for pottery produced in the period c. AD 850 through to AD 1150. During this time the use of the fast wheel became widespread and numerous local and regional industries emerged. The most distinctive pottery of the period is Thetford ware, Stamford ware, and Winchester ware.
Saxon
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: One of the Germanic peoples known collectively as Anglo-Saxons who took part in the settlement of southern and eastern England in the 5th century AD after the Romans left. Their original home was on the North Sea coast north of the Elbe.
Saxon Shore
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Latin Iitus saxonicum
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: A system for defending the coasts of southeast England against raiding Saxon pirates, begun between 287-296 AD and was later (367 AD) constituted a separate command under the Count of the Saxon Shore. It consisted of a series of forts at strategic sites from the Wash to Southhampton, usually at the mouth of estuaries which served as harbors for attached naval units. Burgh Castle near Yarmouth, Richborough in Kent, and Porchester near Portsmouth are the best preserved of these forts. The forts were massive stone structures, defended by projecting bastions, and characterized by narrow gateways. It was a comprehensive coastal command developed with communications and administration.
Sayil
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A major Puuc site / Lowland Maya site in Yucatán, Mexico, which peaked during the Late Classic. There is a multi-storied palace, chultuns under residences and palaces used as reservoirs or kitchen gardens. Some of the most famous Mayan architectural monuments are at Sayil.
scapula saw
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: An artifact made from the shoulder blade of a bighorn sheep or antelope.
scramasax
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: The single-edged knife often accompanying male Anglo-Saxon burials, a cross between an iron hacking sword and a dagger, with an angled back. It apparently served as general purpose knife or dagger. They commonly occur in Migration Period and Anglo-Saxon contexts until about the 10th century. They tended to become increasingly elaborate: many were finely inlaid with a variety of metals and some had very distinctive pommels.
Sepulcros de Fosa
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Middle Neolithic cemeteries of crouched inhumations in pits or stone cists found in Catalonia, Spain, and dated to the 5th-4th millennia BC.
sequential sampling
CATEGORY: measure
DEFINITION: Increasing sample size until some predetermined criterion or boundary is met in an attempt to optimize the balance between the cost of taking larger samples and the risk of poor parameter estimates.
Si Satchanalai
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sawankhalok
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Industrial center of the Sukhothai state in northern Thailand with over 600 kilns for pottery and stoneware. The Chalieng brown-glazed wares, Sukhothai black-on-cream wares, and green-glazed Celadon wares are the best known. They are collectively called Sawankhalok and dated to the 14th-16th centuries AD (though have earlier phrases in some places).
simple random sampling
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A probabilistic sampling technique in which each sample unit has a statistically equal chance for selection. The areas to be sampled are chosen using a table of random numbers.
stratified random sampling
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: stratified sampling; stratified sample
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A probabilistic sampling technique used to cluster and isolate sample units when regular spacing is inappropriate for cultural reasons. The region or site is divided into natural zones or strata, such as cultivated land and forest, and units are then chosen by a random-number procedure to give each zone a number of squares proportional to its area, thus overcoming the inherent bias in simple random sampling. In stratified sampling, the population is divided into classes and simple random samples are drawn from each class.
stratified sample
CATEGORY: measure
DEFINITION: The sample that results from dividing the population into subsets and sampling each.
stratified systematic sampling
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A probabilistic sampling technique which combines elements of simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, and systematic sampling -- in an effort to reduce sampling bias.
strict random sampling
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: The use of random number methods in the selection of locations for archaeological testing and exploraiton to the exclusion of all other methods.
Susa
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Susiana, Shushan, Seleucia
CATEGORY: site; culture
DEFINITION: Major city of western Asia, in Khuzistan, Iran, with its first four phases paralleling those of Mesopotamia (Ubaid, Uruk, Jemdet Nasr, and Early Dynastic). It was the capital of Elam in Akkadian times (3rd, 2nd, 1st millennium BC) and again in the first as a capital of the Achaemenid empire. Susa controlled important east-west trade routes and was the end of the Achaemenid Royal Road from Lydian Sardis. Darius built the citadel c 500 BC. The tell is made up of four separate mounds: 1) the acropolis, which has produced most of the prehistoric material from the site; 2) the Royal City which has important Elamite remains of the 2nd millennium BC; 3) the Apadana, with a large, impressive Achaemenid palace; and 4) the Artisans' Town, of the Achaemenid period and later. It continued under the name of Seleucia after being captured by Alexander the Great in 331 BC; it later passed to the Parthians and Sassanians. Susa's characteristic fine ceramic ware had geometric motifs painted in dark colors onto a light background. Among the more important finds of Susa are the victory stela of Naram-Sin (Akkadian period), many Kassite kudurru, and the law code of Hammurabi (Old Babylonian period), which had been brought to Susa from Babylon after an Elamite raid. Susa was traditionally associated with Anshan (Tepe Malyan) in Fars.
systematic random sampling
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A method of random sampling in which only two random numbers are used -- a random starting number and a random interval number.
systematic sample
CATEGORY: measure
DEFINITION: The sample that results from dividing the population into portions equal to the sample size and selecting one element or observation from each.
systematic sampling
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: systematic sample
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A probabilistic sampling technique which uses a grid of equally spaced sample units, for example, selecting every other square. It is a refinement of random sampling in which one unit is chosen, then others at regular intervals from the first. The sample incorporates randomness and determinacy by specifying that the random selection of a case example has to occur within a certain group of cases.
Tasaday
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: Small group of forest food collectors isolated in the rain-forests of Mindanao, the Philippines, first reported by anthropological investigators in 1971. Numbering 25 at the time, the Tasadays have a simple technology and food-gathering strategy. Linguistic studies suggest that they may instead have descended from an original horticultural population and simplified their own culture during about 700 years of isolation. The Tasaday were dressed only in loincloths and skirts made of orchid leaves, used only crude stone tools (axes and scrapers) and wooden implements (fire drills and digging sticks), and had no weapons for hunting or war.
Tello, Julio César (1880-1947)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: Peruvian archaeologist who discovered and studied some of the most important sites in Peru; considered with Max Uhle and Alfred Kroeber to be a founder of Peruvian archaeology. His main contributions were the excavation of the Paracas cemeteries and the study of the Chavín, but he also worked at Pachacamac, Cajamarquilla, Huari, Pacheco, Cerro Blanco, Punkuri, Kotosh, Cerro Sechin, and Ancon. He also identified many cultural groups, including Chavín, Chimu, Huari, and Nazca. Tello founded the National Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology in Lima.
tenoned mosaic
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A mosaic design formed when a series of stone sculptures is set into the exterior facade of a masonry building, such as by the Maya at Copán, in Honduras. The front of the stone was carved with a face or symbol, the middle and rear parts formed a long tenon that anchored the stone in the interior fill of the building. The mosaic design also carried a symbolic message.
thesauros
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: pl. thesauroi
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: A treasury much like a naiskos and located in a temenos as storage of the valuables of foreign states. There is an elaborate series of thesauroi in Delphi leading up the sacred way.
Thessalonica
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Salonica
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Macedonian and Roman city and port in north of Greece. In Roman times, it was the capital of the province of Macedonia and it was very important in Byzantine times. Churches and monuments are among its ruins.
Tiemassas
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Site in Senegal, south of Dakar, with extensive undated microlithic industry. There may have been successive occupation phases, including a pre-pottery phase characterized by large backed tools, geometric microliths, and hollow-based and leaf-shaped bifacial projectile points.
Tongsamdong
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Neolithic shell midden in South Kyongsang Province, Korea, c 4500-1500 BC, with Jomon pottery and obsidian among the Chulmun material.
torsade
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A decorative band in which two ribbons twist in a regular pattern around a row of circles. In the double torsade, three ribbons twist around two rows of circles.
transaction time
CATEGORY: database design
DEFINITION: The time and date when a database record was entered or modified.
Tsangli
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Neolithic-Bronze Age settlement mound in Thessaly, Greece, with characteristic gray matte-painted pottery.
tussah
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A type of strong, coarse, tan-colored silk obtained from the cocoon of wild silkworms in China and India (the products of various Asiatic Saturniidae, such as Antheraea paphia).
two-sample test
CATEGORY: measure
DEFINITION: A statistical comparison of two sample statistics to see if the samples are likely to have come from the same population.
underwater reconnaissance
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: Geophysical methods of underwater survey. Some of these methods are: 1) towing a proton magnetometer behind a survey vessel to detect iron and steel objects, 2) using side-scan sonar that transmits sound waves in a fan-shaped beam to produce a graphic image of surface features on the sea-bed, and 3) using a sub-bottom profiler that emits sound pulses which bounce back from features and objects buried beneath the sea floor.
Universal Tranverse Mercator
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: UTM
CATEGORY: measure
DEFINITION: A grid-based system whereby north and east coordinates provide a location anywhere in the world, accurate to one meter. The UTM system divides the surface of the Earth between 80
Usatovo
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Usatovo culture
CATEGORY: site; culture
DEFINITION: Settlement, barrow cemeteries, and flat-grave cemeteries near Odessa, in the Ukraine -- a regional variant of the Eneolithic Cucuteni-Tripolye culture. It is the type site of a copper-using culture with painted pottery and with the kurgan burial of the steppe zone. It is thought to date c 2600-2100 BC. One barrow cemetery at Usatovo was one of the richest in the steppe zone and lay next to a stone-built settlement. Crouched inhumations as primary burials were often accompanied by many secondary burials in cists or pits. Widespread contacts are documented by the presence of Baltic amber and Anatolian silver and antimony, and the existence of corbel-vaulted tombs suggest Aegean affinities.
Vaisali
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A city of the Ganges civilization of northern India, famous as the birthplace of Mahavira, founder of the Jain religion. The earliest occupation belongs to the Iron Age, when Mahavira lived (6th century BC) and has yielded Northern Black Polished Ware and iron artifacts.
Venosa
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A town in southern Italy that has a Lower Palaeolithic site with a hand axe or Acheulian level overlying one with abundant sidescapers (evolved Clactonian, Tayacian or Charentian?). Originally a settlement of the Lucanians (an ancient Italic tribe), it was taken by the Romans after the Samnite Wars (291 BC). Its position on the Appian Way made it an important Roman garrison town. The poet Horace was born there, and many of his poems mention it.
Vila Nova de Sao Pedro
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Important Chalcolithic site near Santarém, Portugal with an unenclosed settlement c 3800 BC, succeeded by one surrounded by at least two bastioned stone walls, c 3200 BC. The first belonged to the Palmella culture and the final phase belonged to Beaker culture, c 2500 BC. Artifacts include copper axes, chisels, and daggers; pottery included Beaker material and local wares of the 3rd millennium BC. Strongly fortified settlements, such as this, accompanied by cemeteries containing rich collections of prestige goods suggest the appearance of a hierarchically organized society.
Villeneuve-Tolosane
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Middle Neolithic village in Haute-Garonne, France, with many pits, ditches, hearths, and Chasséen material c 4250-3600 BC.
Vlasac
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Late Mesolithic fishing-hunting site located in the Iron Gates gorge of the River Danube in Serbia with occupation dates of 6000-5500 BC. Small circular tents are arranged near stone hearths around a central space or platform. Large numbers of Mesolithic burials are known from the site, mostly Cro-Magnon physical type with few grave goods.
Warsaw
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Stare Bródno
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: City and now capital of Poland, which began as Stare Bródno, a small trading settlement of the 10th and early 11th centuries AD. That settlement's functions were taken over successively by Kamion (c 1065) and Jazdow (c 1262). About the end of the 13th century, Jazdow was moved to the north, to a village named Warszowa (Warsaw), and the community was strengthened by the protection of a castle. Medieval Warsaw grew up on the left bank of the River Vistula. Excavations around the royal castle located the earthworks of a proto-urban 10th-century fortress with earth-and-timber ramparts and gateways. The area around the cathedral was the site of the citadel of the 10th-century town.
Worsaae, Jens Jacob Asmussen (1821-1886)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: Danish archaeologist who laid the foundations for the study of prehistory. He was the successor to Christian J. Thomsen at the National Museum at Copenhagen and he applied the Three Age System to stone monuments. He wrote Danmarks Oldtid oplyst ved Oldsager og Gravhøie" ("The Primeval Antiquities of Denmark" 1843) which introduced such other concepts as nomenclature typology and diffusion and discusses the value and principles of prehistoric research. He focused on the study of excavated artifacts particularly in their geographic and stratigraphic contexts. His standards and professionalism put him ahead of his time."

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