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DEFINITION: An island in the Indian Ocean off the east coast of Africa which was one of the last major tropical land masses to be settled by man. There is no evidence for human presence prior to the 1st millennium AD. It is generally accepted that the island's first settlers came from Indonesia, perhaps from Borneo. Later, probably in about the 11th century AD, Bantu-speaking immigrants from East Africa also arrived.
Montelius, Oscar (1843-1921)
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Gustav Oscar Augustin Montelius
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: Swedish archaeologist who constructed a chronology for prehistoric Europe and who developed typological schemes for the European Neolithic and Bronze Age. He divided European prehistory into numbered periods (four for the Neolithic, five for the Bronze Age) and to these periods he gave absolute dates by extending cross-dating from Egypt across Europe. Montelius believed in the diffusionist view (called ex oriente lux) that all European culture in later prehistoric times was derived from the ancient civilizations of Egypt and the Near East. Still controversial is his theory, the Swedish typology suggesting that material culture and biological life develop through essentially the same kind of evolutionary process. He published "Om tidsbestämming inom ronsåldern" (1885; "On Determining the Periods Within the Bronze Age") "The Civilization of Sweden in Heathen Times" (1888) and "Die älteren Kulturperioden in Orient und in Europa" (1903-23; "The Older Cultural Periods in the Orient and Europe").
Scarlet Ware
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: A type of red-and-black painted pottery used in the early 3rd millennium BC in the plains of eastern Mesopotamia, of the Early Dynastic period. It was derived from Jemdet Nasr Ware. Geometrical designs in black on buff, separated by large areas of red paint, became progressively more elaborate, in later stages including animal and human figures in red outlined in black. There are hints of connections with the wares of Baluchistan, especially in the elongated bulls.
bulbar scar
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: The irregularly shaped scar on the bulb of percussion of a struck flint flake. It marks the place where a small piece of flint is dislodged during fracture. The bulbar surface is the surface upon which the bulb of percussion occurs. This fracture pattern is evident by a bruised striking platform at the point of impact with shock waves radiating from it and, on the resultant flake, a bulb of percussion and bulbar scar. When these features are present, it is possible to distinguish human workmanship from natural breakage caused by heat or frost.
counterscarp bank
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: The facing wall on the forward (outer, downhill) side of a defensive ditch, often faced by brick or stone for ease of maintenance. The scarp was the main fortress wall of a hillfort or earthwork site. The term also describes the side of the vallum and ditch furthest away from the camp and facing in towards it.
discard rate
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: The typical rate at which a group or society disposes of its unwanted objects; plentiful, easily replaced items tend to have a higher discard rate than rare or highly durable ones.
eraillure scar
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: The small flake scar on the dorsal side of a flake next to the platform. It is the result of rebounding force during percussion flaking.
CATEGORY: geology; geography
DEFINITION: A natural steep landmark or massive fault block. This landform consists of a steep slope which marks an abrupt change in altitude between two adjacent land surfaces. This long cliff or steep slope separates two comparatively level or more gently sloping surfaces and is a result of erosion or faulting. The term also refers to the side of the vallum sloping into the fossa, or ditch, nearest to a fort(ification).
flake scar
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A mark or trace on a stone showing the point of attachment of a flake that has been removed; the point where a flake has been chipped off in the making of a tool.
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: Minute patterns of edge damage on a stone tool, often suggesting how that tool was utilized.
patterns of discard
DEFINITION: A term referring to remains left for investigation after natural destructive forces have affected artifacts and food remains abandoned by their original users.
pontil scar
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: The characteristic mark left on the base of glass vessels by breaking off the glass-blower's rod.
previous scar
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A blade or flake scar seen on the face of a blade or flake resulting form the initial removal of a blade or a flake from a core or nodule.
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: In stone tools, this is the negative impression left after the removal of a flake.
scar ridge
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Any boundary of an individual stone flake scar.
DEFINITION: An image or representation of a dung beetle (Scarabaeus sacer), very common in ancient Egypt, especially on the Egyptian stamp seal, in use from the Middle Kingdom (1938-c 1600? BC). The dung beetle was held sacred by the ancient Egyptians as a symbol of the motive power of the sun, which was equated with the beetle's ball of dung. It figured frequently in jewelry and other art forms but is best known as the standard form of Egyptian stamp seals. These are made of stone or faience in the shape of a beetle resting on a flat base, the underside of which is carved with a distinguishing inscription in hieroglyphs and the name and titles of the owner. The back of the seal was the dung beetle form. Scarabs were perforated lengthwise and were worn around the neck of as a finger ring, serving as amulet as well as seal.
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: The setback of a wall or embankment to form a ledge.

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