(View exact match)schistCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A coarse-grained metamorphic rock which consists of layers of different minerals and can be split into thin irregular platesschist honesCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Whetstones made of mica-schist from the distinctive Eisdorg rocks of southern Norway. They were widely distributed on sites around the North Sea throughout the medieval period. A 9th-century boat carrying these hones was found near Kaupang.
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DEFINITION: An Upper Palaeolithic site on the Rhine River in northwest Germany, known for its many Late Magdalenian engraved schist plaques with radiocarbon dating of 12,600 bp. A volcano preserved the site during the Allerød.KilwaCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A major trading city of the East African coast, on an island off Tanzania. For three centuries before the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500 it was the leading entrepot on the East African coast. It was first occupied in the 9th century AD, with the earliest settlement being a village of thatched, timber-framed houses. The only industries were iron-working and the manufacture of shell beads. Small quantities of pottery from western Asia and, towards the end of the period, chlorite-schist from Madagascar indicate commercial activity on a modest scale. Prosperity began c 1200, marked by the introduction of coins, widespread use of masonry, and the construction of the mosque. In the 14th century the sultan built a spectacular palace, known as Husuni Kubwa, just outside the town. The establishment of a wealthy Islamic community is identified with the arrival of the so-called Shirazi dynasty which, according to tradition, came from the Persian Gulf. In the 14th and 15th centuries, Kilwa controlled the coast far to the south and grew even more wealthy through its control of the trade in Zimbabwean gold. The arrival of the Portuguese in the Indian Ocean at the end of the 15th century heralded Kilwa's decline.Machu PicchuCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An Inca site northwest of Cuzco, Peru, discovered in 1911 by Hiram Bingham, ingeniously situated on a hillcrest in the Andes overlooking a drop of 1,500 feet on either side. This ancient fortress city contains some fine, well-preserved stone buildings and is located in a mountain saddle between two peaks at a height of 7710 ft (2350 m), 2000 ft above the Urubamba River. The shrines and buildings are numerous and of unusual design, requiring much engineering skill and fine stone masonry. Many structures are arranged around courts in enclosures and with patios on terraces; the majority are single or back-to-back one-roomed buildings with niches symmetrically arranged on inside walls. Walls are inclined and doors, niches, and windows are trapezoidal in form. There are 16 finely carved fountains beside the main thoroughfare. The temple and citadel were once surrounded by terraced gardens connected by more than 3000 steps. One of the most striking buildings was the astronomical observatory. Machu Picchu was a walled fortified city with a steep stone stairway to its single entrance and was approached via a stone roadway connected to Cuzco. Excavations revealed an unusual number of female skeletons buried in caves on the steep rocky slopes, suggesting that the site may have been the refuge of the Chosen Women (Virgins of the Sun). A pre-Incan presence is suspected from a number of green schist 'record stones' found in the oldest part of the site. The Incas thrived from c 1400-1540 AD.MirafloresCATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A complex of cultural materials which define a phase from 100 BC to 200 AD of Highland Mayan sites in the Late Pre-Classic period. It is the Late Formative period of the Valley of Guatemala. Characteristic artifacts include engraved soft stone and monochrome ceramic vessels, as well as 'mushroom stones' (hollow stones set in an annular base and capped with mushroom-shaped covers, which may have been used in rites with hallucinogenic mushrooms). A strong Izapan influence is evident. The huge Miraflores mounds located at Kaminaljuyú contained log tombs of incredible richness. In one, the deceased was accompanied by sacrificed followers or captives. As many as 340 objects were placed with him, including jade mosaic masks, jade ear spools and necklaces, bowls of chlorite schist, and pottery vessels of great beauty.Thin Orange PotterySYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Thin Orange ware
DEFINITION: A thin-walled, orange-fired ware with a distinctive mica schist temper and a decoration of incised and dotted patterns of Mesoamerica. It was introduced in the late Pre-Classic Period and widely traded in Mesoamerica during the Classic period. It has been found in Colima, Jalisco, Nayarit, Kaminaljuyú, Copán, Monte Albán, and Teotihuacán. It is regarded as evidence of central Mexican influence, although its probable point of origin is the Valley of Puebla. It should not be confused with the early Post-Classic Fine Orange ware.chloriteSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: steatite, soapstone
DEFINITION: A soft gray, green, or black silicate mineral used for seals and vessels, also called steatite. Chlorite is a common rock-forming mineral in clastic sediments and in hydrothermally altered igneous rocks; chlorites are widespread and important constituents of such metamorphic rocks as green schists or chlorite schists.cleavageCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Property possessed by many minerals of breaking in certain preferred direction along smooth plane surfaces; property possessed by certain rocks of breaking with relative ease along parallel planes or nearly parallel surfaces. Rock cleavage is designated as slaty, phyllitic, schistose, and gneissic.cystSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: cist, cist grave
DEFINITION: A box-shaped burial structure made of stone slabs (especially slate, schist, or granite) set on edge. Cysts may be either sunk below ground level or built on the land surface, in which case they are covered by a protective barrow. The body, in a crouched position, was buried, or an urn, containing cremation ashes, and funerary furniture were placed and buried. The name comes from the Greek word 'kiste', meaning chest or box.metamorphic rockCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Rocks which have been changed from their original form by heat or by pressure beneath the surface of the earth. Metamorphic transformations include limestone to marble, shale to slate, and slate to schist. When magma forms an intrusion, it heats and alters the surrounding rocks by contact metamorphism, which forms a ring of altered rocks?the metamorphic aureole?around the intrusion.