(View exact match)spadeCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A tool with a sharp-edged, rectangular metal blade and a long handle, used for digging
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Grimes GravesSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Grime's Graves
DEFINITION: The oldest known Neolithic flint mine in England, in Norfolk, with the remains of around 350 mine shafts. The high-quality flint had three banks: floorstone, wallstone, and topstone. The products, mainly ax blades, were roughly chipped to shape at the site and were then traded in semi-finished condition. The miners used flint tools, deer's antlers as picks or wedges, and animal shoulder blades as spades. Excavation was probably by wooden shovel (a product of the polished ax and chisel) or possibly the shoulder blades of oxen. It is estimated that 50,000 picks made of red-deer antler were used during the 600 years of activity in the mine, which began about 2300 BC. In one shaft, the miners made a chalk statuette of a fat pregnant woman and a phallus of chalk; this practice, a fertility cult, was used to bring fruitful results in further mining. There are differing dates for the use of the mine shafts.HemuduSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Ho-mu-tu
CATEGORY: site; culture
DEFINITION: An Early Neolithic site in Zhejiang Province, China, dating back to the late 6th and early 5th millennia BC. Two radiocarbon dates of c 5000 and c 4800 BC are the earliest yet for rice cultivation and it is the type-site of the southern rice-growing regime (millet was grown in the north). Pigs, dogs, and water buffalo were domesticated. Hoes or spades made from cattle scapulae have been found in large quantity; stone tools were few and crude. Timber houses show the use of a mortise-and-tenon technique. The low-fired handmade pottery includes shallow Ding tripods. It was succeeded by the Qingliangang culture in the Early Neolithic and by the Daxi, Qujialing, and Liangzhu cultures in the Middle Neolithic, c 3800-2800 BC.