CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A warm period during the Middle pleniglacial phase of the last (Weichselian) glaciation (cold stage) in Europe. It is dated to around 28,000 BC (30,000 bp).
CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A Continental Middle Pleniglacial interstadial of the Weichselian cold stage, starting around 39,000 BP. It occurred during the final glaciation between the Moershooft and Denekamp interstadials.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Archaeological cultures that represent similar levels or technological advance with other cultures, regardless of a difference derived in absolute dating methods. This is the principle behind the Three Age System.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Younger Dryas CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A widespread but short interval of renewed glacialactivity and cold climatic conditions in the British Isles. This event occurred about 11,000 years ago, some 2,000 years before the dissipation of the ice sheet. It is a stadial of the Devensian cold stage during which small glaciers were formed in the high mountains of Wales and the Lake District and an icecap was formed over the highlands of Scotland. The Loch Lomond stadial may be correlated with Godwin's Pollen Zone III and the Younger Dryas (Scandinavia).
CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: An Interstadial of the Weichselian cold stage. It is dated to c 50,000-43,000 bp.
CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: An Interstadial of the Weichselian cold stage, dated by radiocarbon to c 58,000 bp, but it may be earlier. The beginning of the Weichsel has been placed at about 70,000 years ago.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: stadia CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A period during glaciation when the temperature was at its lowest and ice sheets and glaciers most extensive. They are separated by warmer interstadial periods. These cold episodes are of relatively short duration.
CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: Interstadial of the Devensian cold stage which occurred c 13,000-11,000 bp. It consisted of a rapid temperature rise to an initial thermal maximum, followed by a slight temperature decline at 12,000 bp. It stabilized until 11,000 bp, when it fell sharply at the start of the Loch Lomond Stadial. The Windermere interstadial may be correlated with Godwin's Pollen Zone II.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Allerod interstadial CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: An interstadial (transient) period of glacial retreat at the close of the Würm Glacial Stage in Europe, dated to c 12,000-11,000 years ago. This temporary increase in warmth allowed forests to establish themselves for a time in the ice-free zones. Radiocarbon dates show similar conditions prevailed in North America at about the same time. It was followed by another cold, glacial advance.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The part of the continental shelf that connects Northeast Asia with present-day Alaska. These were the polar continental shelves that escaped glaciation during the ice ages but which were exposed during periods of low sea level, which facilitated migration of people to North America from Asia, and in the Laptev and East Siberian seas. When exposed at the time of the last glacial maximum, it was a large, flat, vegetated landmass. In 1993, investigations on the climatic interstadial of 11,000-12,000 years ago in Beringia (now submerged under the Bering Strait) and the way it provided for the peopling of the New World from Asia were reported. Traces of starch from an apparently domesticated variety of the taro plant on flint tools from the Solomon Islands suggested that conscious planting was being done in the Pacific as long ago as 28,000 years before the present.
Big Game Hunting tradition
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Big Game Hunting culture CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Any of several ancient North American cultures based on hunting herd animals such as mammoth and bison; the first indigenous cultural complex of the continent. It may have developed from an earlier hunting culture whose people arrived in North America between 20,000-40,000 years ago in an interstadial (break) in the Wisconsin Ice Age. It is also probable that this culture derived from a migration across the Bering Land Bridge c 13,000-14,000 BC. The remains of these cultures have been found mainly in the North American Plains as well as in the eastern and southwestern regions of North America. Lanceolate projectile points, such as Clovis and Folsom, characterize the tradition. The big-game-hunting tradition began to decline or change after 8000 BC.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Weichselian, Devensian glaciation, Weichsel glaciation CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: The final continental glacial advance, dating to c 115,000-10,000 BP, especially referring to a group of British deposits, stratified above Ipswichian Interglacial deposits. Much of northern England, Scotland, and Wales is covered by a blanket of Devensian tills, sands, and gravels and these sediments were deposited by the ice-sheet. South of the ice-sheet margin is a series of related pro-glacial and periglacial deposits. Most of the Devensianstage can be dated using radiocarbon, and by this means it has been correlated with the Weichselian in northwest Europe and the Wisconsin in North America. All these formations represent one cold stage and directly preceded our present period of predominantly warm climate (the Flandrian or Holocene). Not all of the Devensian deposits are strictly glacial; some contain abundant fossils which indicate warmer interstadial periods. Three interstadials have been defined in Britain: the ChelfordInterstadial (c 61,000 bp); the Upton Warren Interstadialcomplex (45-25,000 bp), and the Windermere Interstadial (13-11,000 bp). Levallosian, Mousterian, and Upper Palaeolithic artifacts are found in Devensian deposits and bones of Homo Sapiens have been found in Devensian cave sediments.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An Upper Palaeolithic camping site in southern Moravia of the mammoth hunters of loess country. Excavation has revealed various phases of occupation, represented by houses, hearths, flint tools (burins, scrapers, backed blades), ornaments of mammothivory, animal figurines of baked clay, Venus figurines, faunal and human remains. The main occupation level dates from 25,000 BP, the beginning of the last glacial maximum (the end of an interstadialperiod). The culture has been called Pavlovian or eastern Gravettian.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithicsite on the Dnestr River, Ukraine, dating to an interstadial preceding the early cold maximum of the last Glacial. There are sidescrapers and denticulates among the tools.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Palaeolithicsite in Kraków, Poland including Middle Palaeolithic assemblages of the Last Interglacial and subsequent cooler periods. The Upper Palaeolithic assemblages of the Aurignacian date to the Interstadial preceding the Last Glacial Maximum.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A group of Palaeolithic and Mesolithic sites on the Dnestr River in western Ukraine -- with Moldova V consisting of 12+ archaeological levels spanning from c 45,000-7000 BC according to radiocarbon evidence. The occupation was not continuous. There are many Middle Palaeolithic artifacts and associated faunal remains and most of the levels date to the interstadials before the beginning of the Last Glacial. Upper Palaeolithic assemblages have a large number of burins. The sites provide a complete dated sequence of Upper Palaeolithic occupation in the Ukraine.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: paleosol CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: A fossilsoil preserved within a sequence of deposits. They come from a period when cold conditions had improved enough for vegetation to colonize and for a soil to be formed. Palaeosols are widespread within the Pleistoceneloess sequences of the Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark. The Interstadials of the Weichselian have been reconstructed from the northern European palaeosol and loess succession; extensive palaeosols also characterize interglacials and interstadials of North America. It is a source of much palaeoenvironmental information.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Saale Glacial Stage, Saalian cold stage CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A division of Pleistocene deposits and time in northern Europe which followed the Holstein Interglacial Stage and preceded the Eemian Interglacial Stage. It was the penultimate cold stage in northern Europe, c 200,000-125,000 BP. The extensive and complexSaale deposits are correlated with the Wolstonian (or Gipping) GlacialStage of Britain and the Riss GlacialStage of the European Alpine region. The Saale is roughly contemporaneous with the IllinoianGlacialStage of North America. The Saale has three complex phases: the Drente, Treene, and Warthe substages. The Drente and Warthe represent periods of glacial advance, or maxima, whereas the Treene represents an interstadialperiod of glacial retreat between the early Drente and the late Warthe. In the region of central Europe, the Saale is represented by three glacial maxima separated by two periods, or interstadials, of moderating climatic conditions. One of the main features is a complexseries of end-moraines, demarcating the maximum extent of ice sheets. These ice sheets flowed out from centers in Scandinavia, across the Baltic Sea and into northern Europe and Russia. The end-moraines are split into two sets: one called the Drenthe moraines (or Dnieper), and the Warthe moraines (Moscow in the USSR). These formations are complex and each seems to represent several 'pulses' of the ice-sheet edge. The SaaleGlacialStage was named for the German river, a tributary of the Elbe.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Weichsel Glaciation; Vistula Glacial Stage CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: The final glacial advance, c 115,000-10,000 bp, corresponding to the Alpine Würm, American Wisconsinan, and British Devensian. The Weichsel Glacial Stage followed the Eemian Interglacial Stage and marks the last major incursion of Pleistocene continental ice sheets. It is named for the ice sheet of north Germany and other Quaternaryglacial deposits in northwest Europe. Most of the Weichselian is within the range of radiocarbon dating. The ice sheets were probably at their maximum size for only a short period, between 30,000-13,000 bp; eight interstadials have been recognized in the Weichselian of northwest Europe. The late Weichsel expansion of the Scandinavian continental ice sheet began about 25,000 years ago; most of the Weichselian sediments over northern Europe are part of this late Weichselian cold period.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Younger Dryas event CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A stadial of the Weichselian cold stage, dated to between 11,000-10,000 bp. The last glacial recession (13,000-6,000 years ago) was interrupted by this sharp advance. It takes its name from a tundra plant called Dryas octopetala, fossil remains of which are common in deposits of the stadial. It was most evident around the North Atlantic and coincided with an apparent temporary diversion of glacial meltwater from the Mississippi River to the St. Lawrence drainage system. It has been postulated that this discharge of cold, fresh water disrupted the Atlantic Ocean circulation system that warms the North Atlantic.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithicrock shelters and caves in the Crimea, Ukraine, some with 6-7 occupation levels. Some are dated to an interstadial preceding the early cold maximum of the last glacial. Artifacts include bifacial foliates and Ak-Kaya culture sidescrapers. Neanderthal fossils have been found.