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Kachemak stage
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Kachemak culture
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A marine mammal-hunting culture found around the Kachemak Bay of the southern Kenai Peninsula in central southern Alaska. It is divided into three phases, the oldest of which may date back as far as the 8th century BC and the most recent lasting until historic times. The first phase was the most distinctly Eskimo in character. Stone (including slate) implements in the early period were usually retouched; later they were ground. Round or oval stone lamps and realistic human figures of carved stone have been found. Copper tools and pottery appeared in the third stage. Rock paintings were mainly representations of men and animals. Burials have the body in a crouched position, with associated grave goods. During the final stage, artificial bone or ivory eyes were placed over those of the deceased. There may have been cultural connections with eastern Asia, with adjacent land areas, and with Kodiak Island.
Post-Classic stage
CATEGORY: chronology
DEFINITION: The final pre-Columbian period in New World cultural history, following the collapse of Classic period civilizations, start in 750/900 until 1520 AD. The period is characterized by metalworking, complex urban societies, advanced commerce, militarism, imperialism, and secularism. It is traditionally dated from the fall of the Classic Maya in 900, but the collapse did not occur simultaneously throughout Mesoamerica.
Riss-Würm Interglacial Stage
CATEGORY: chronology
DEFINITION: Major division of the Pleistocene in Alpine Europe, a period of relatively moderate climatic conditions, followed the Riss Glacial Stage and preceded the Würm Glacial Stage, both periods of deteriorating conditions. The Riss-Würm is correlated with the Eemian Interglacial Stage of northern Europe and the Ipswichian Interglacial Stage of Great Britain. It is broadly equivalent to the Sangamon Interglacial Stage of North America.
early-stage biface
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A biface in the initial step of manufacture, usually with sinuous edges and simple surface topography.
formative stage
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: Any culture having the presence of agriculture or other subsistence economy of comparable effectiveness; also, the successful integration of such an economy into well-established, sedentary village life.
late-stage biface
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A biface in the final step of manufacture, usually with relatively straight edges and complex surface topography.
multi-stage cluster samples
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: Cluster samples in which a sample is all that is examined; sampling at least two levels or sub-sampling.
stage
CATEGORY: term; chronology
DEFINITION: A level of cultural development characterized by a technology and its associated social and ideological features; a large-scale archaeological unit consisting of a well-defined level of development attained by a particular culture area. The adoption of agriculture, for instance, had profound cultural and social consequences, raising people to a higher stage. This technological subdivision of prehistoric time has little chronological meaning beyond the regional (as it may be continental or global), an example being the Stone Age, though stages are integral parts of the chronological sequencing of culture history.

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