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State Historical Preservation Officer
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: SHPO
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: The person appointed by the Governor to serve as the Chief Administrative Officer of the Office of Historic preservation and Executive Secretary of the State Historical Resources Commission. The SHPO administers state and federally mandated historic preservation programs under the authority of the National Historic Preservation Act.
United States Geologic Survey
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: USGS
CATEGORY: term; geology
DEFINITION: The government agency charged with the recording and dissemination of information related to the geology of the United States and its holdings.
Warring States period
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Contending States
CATEGORY: chronology
DEFINITION: A division of the Zhou/Chou Dynasty, 475-221 BC, the latter part of the Eastern Zhou period, made up of six or seven small feuding Chinese kingdoms. The Warring States period saw the rise of many of the great philosophers of Chinese civilization, including the Confucian thinkers Mencius and Hsün-tzu, and the establishment of many of the governmental structures and cultural patterns that were to characterize China for the next 2,000 years. The Warring States period is distinguished from the preceding age, the Spring and Autumn (Ch'un Ch'iu) period (770-476 BC), when the country was divided into many even smaller states. In 223 BC, Ch'in defeated Ch'u and two years later established the first unified Chinese empire.
city-state
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: polis
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: A political system consisting of an independent city having sovereignty over contiguous territory and serving as the center of political, economic, and cultural life. The term originated in England in the late 19th century and has been applied especially to the cities of ancient Greece, Phoenicia, and Italy and to the cities of medieval Italy. Its ancient name, polis, was derived from the citadel (acropolis) that was its administrative center. City-states differed from tribal or national systems in size, patriotism, and desire for independence. The origin of city-states probably occurred between 1000-800 BC in Greece, the Aegean islands, and western Asia Minor. As they grew, their people went out and created city-states on the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea, mainly between 750-550 BC. A city-state had its own government and was not subject to any outside authority.
garrison state
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: A fortified state organized to serve primarily its own need for military security; also a state maintained by military power and established in a strategic position. The garrison states of the Zhou feudalistic network were protected by walled cities, and ruled by the kinsmen and allies through marriage with the Zhou royal house.
nation-state
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: A political unit consisting of a number of diverse cities and their hinterlands, organized into a single state with a unified set of laws and system of government. The most important type of political system in the modern world is the nation-state. The world today is divided territorially into more than 175 states, in each of which a national government claims to exercise sovereignty and seeks obedience by its citizens.
petty state
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A small socially stratified political unit, esp. found in Mesoamerica at the time of the Spanish conquest.
pre-state society
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: Any small-scale society without highly stratified class structure
state
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: state-organized society
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: A form of social organization characterized by a strong central government, socio-economic class divisions, and a market economy; the most complex form of social organization. Leadership is not based on kinship affiliation, though it may be. States are frequently marked by an armed force and a bureaucracy for recordkeeping. They often have very large populations, have cities and monumental architecture. Such a society retains many chiefdom characteristics in elaborated form, but also includes true political power sanctioned by legitimate force, and social integration through concepts of nationality and citizenship usually defined by territorial boundaries. A distinction can be drawn between primary states, those whose origin is independent of any contact with previously existing states, and secondary states, which arise from influences emanating from already established states. In cultural evolutionist models, it ranks second only to the empire as the most complex societal developmental stage.
stater
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A Greek coin of electrum and silver, a standard unit which was equivalent to the Near Eastern shekel and the silver didrachm.
theoretical statement
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: A proposal or the development of a particular explanation or way of understanding human behavior and the effects of humans on the material world.

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