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First Temperate Neolithic
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: FTN
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A term sometimes used to describe the earliest farming cultures in the temperate zone of Europe (and sometimes in other areas). In southeast Europe from c 5400-4500/4300 BC, there was the Starcevo (eastern and northern Yugoslavia), Körös (eastern and southwest Hungary), Cris (west and lowland Rumania), Kremikovci (northwest Bulgaria), and Karanovo (central and southern Bulgaria). The regional groups are differentiated by their individual painted wares, but the group of cultures is unified by non-ceramic traits such a miniature polished bone spoons, fired clay lip-plugs, rod-head figurines, and stamp seals. The vast majority of early FTN sites are located in the major river valleys of the Balkans, either as tell settlements or as short-lived flat sites. Hoe or digging-stick agriculture combined with cattle husbandry was the economic base of most FTN settlements.
fiber-tempered pottery
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: fiber tempering
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: Any clay pottery to which grass or root fibers have been added as a tempering material. This ware is the earliest pottery in Caribbean South America and is the oldest pottery in the United States, making its appearance in Archaic shell mounds in Georgia and Florida before 2500 BC.
grass-tempered ware
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Pottery embodying chopped grass or straw in its fabric as a tempering agent. Grass-tempered wares are well represented amongst pagan Saxon communities of the immediate post-Roman period in southern and eastern England; indeed the presence of such pottery is the basis upon which sites of the period are recognized.
grit tempering
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: The addition of small pieces of rock or sand to the paste used in creating a ceramic object.
grog tempering
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: The addition of small pieces of crushed ceramic to the paste used in creating a ceramic object.
shell tempering
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: The addition of small pieces of crushed shell to the paste used in creating a ceramic object.
temper
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: grog
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: Foreign material (sand, plant fibers, grit, shell, crushed rock, broken pottery) added to clay for potterymaking to improve its firing qualities and prevent a vessel from cracking during the drying process. Temper reduces plasticity, which would cause shrinkage or cracking upon drying and firing. The study of temper is important for the identification of the place of manufacture of a vessel.
tempering
CATEGORY: geology; ceramics
DEFINITION: One of the processes in the manufacture of steel and other metal artifacts, the heat treatment of hardened steels to improve toughness and reduce brittleness. The steel is reheated to a temperature of around 450? C and then rapidly cooled by quenching. Also, the material added to the paste of a ceramic to make it stronger and give it properties it does not naturally have.

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