(View exact match)transepted gallery graveCATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: A type of gallery grave having side chambers resembling transepts; a variant of the megalithic gallery grave in which side chambers (transepts) open from the main burial chamber. These tombs are found only in three areas: near the mouth of the River Loire in France, in the Bristol Channel region (e.g. Severn-Cotswold), and in northwest Ireland. The three are in some way interrelated and all lie on western seaways linking Atlantic France with the British Isles. Some scholars regard those in France as variant passage graves, unrelated to the British Isles tombs.
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Severn-Cotswold tombSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Severn-Cotswold
DEFINITION: A group of Neolithic burial monuments in southwest Britain around the Bristol Channel - megalithic tombs consisting of a long mound, tapering on one end, with one or more passage graves. In the finest tombs, the funerary area is a long gallery with up to three pairs of side chambers opening from it. In others, the courtyard leads only to a false entrance while the burial chambers open laterally onto the side of the mound. The Severn-Cotswold tombs were built early in the Neolithic period, and there is a radiocarbon date of 3600 +/- 130 BC from Waylands Smithy, Berkshire. The West Kennet tomb (3330 +/- 150) was constructed at much the same time as the nearby causewayed camp at Windmill Hill. In plan, these graves show a general similarity to the French transepted gallery graves around the mouth of the River Loire. There are two main varieties: axial-chambered tombs, with the passage entrance opening from the center of the broader end of the mound, and lateral-chambered tombs, where two megalithic chambers are entered from opposite sides of the mound.chamber tombSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: chambered tomb
DEFINITION: A prehistoric tomb, often megalithic in construction, that contained a large burial chamber. Such a vault was usually used for successive burials over a long period of time. The term is also used for a rock-cut tomb, especially the shaft-and-chamber tomb, with a similar burial rite. Chamber tombs were built in many parts of the world and at many different times. The European varieties were called court cairn, dolmen, entrance grave, gallery grave, giants' grave, hunebed, passage grave, portal dolmen, tholos, transepted gallery grave, and wedge-shaped gallery grave. Many were rectangular chambers cut into the side of a hill and approached by a long entrance passage (dromos), especially in the Aegean.court cairnSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Clyde-Carlingford tomb
DEFINITION: A type of Neolithic (c 3500 BC) chamber tomb common in southwest Scotland and northern Ireland. Its features include an elongated rectangular or trapeze-shaped cairn with an unroofed semicircular forecourt at one end. The courtyard gives access to the burial chamber proper, which is normally a gallery with two or more chambers separated by jambs, or by a combination of jambs and sills. This basic form sometimes called a 'horned cairn' has many variants. In the 'lobster-claw' or 'full court', cairns the wings of the facade curve around until they almost meet at the front of the tomb to enclose a circular or oval forecourt. Sometimes a cairn contains more than one tomb or there are subsidiary chambers. Court cairns continued to be used until the end of the Neolithic period around 2200 BC. The later court cairns share many features with the Severn-Cotswold tombs of southwest Britain and with the transepted gallery graves near the river Loire.