SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Baden-Pécel; Ossarn or Pecel culture; Channeled Ware or Radial-decorated pottery culture CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A third millennium Copper Age culture over much of central Europe (the Carpathian basin: northern Yugoslavia, all of Hungary, most of Czechoslovakia, southern Poland, and parts of Austria and Germany). Ancient Baden was occupied by Celts and then by Germanic peoples and was conquered by Rome in the 1st century AD. It was a successor to the Lengyelculture. They produced metal tools including ax-hammers and torcs of twisted copperwire. The pottery was plain and dark, but some have channeleddecoration and handles of Ansa Lunata type. The horse was domesticated and carts mounted on four solid disk-wheels were used. Baden had contacts with the Early Bronze Age cultures of the Aegean. It was named for the town of Baden, near Vienna. A radiocarbonchronology has divided the Badenculture into three phases: Early (2750-2450 BC), Classic (2600-2250 BC), and Late (2400-2200 BC). The most complete sequences are in Hungary and Czechoslovakia. Baden was remarkable at the time because it had a highly dispersed settlement pattern and a central cemetery pattern.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: balista CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: An ancient heavy missile launcher designed to hurl javelins or heavy balls on the principle of a crossbow. The smaller ballista was just that -- a basic, large crossbow fastened to a mount. It was also used to hurl iron shafts, Greek fire, heavy darts, etc. during sieges. The huge, complicated Roman ballista, however, was powered by torsion derived from two thick skeins of twisted cords through which were thrust two separate arms joined at their ends by the cord that propelled the missile. The largest ballistas were quite accurate in hurling 60-pound weights up to about 500 yards. The catapult was yet another machine used for firing bolts and other arrow-like missiles. The two terms are often used interchangeably.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: An ornamental pin or piece of decorative metalwork attached by a pin, that was either a fastener or ornament, and are found from c 1400 BC. Brooches developed from the Roman fibula, which was similar to a safety pin, and first made at La Tène on Lake Neuchâtel, Switzerland. Their styles vary especially in the twistings of the spring and may be used to date other finds. There were long brooches, rosette or circular brooches, and penannular types.
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: Pottery decoration produced by impressing a twisted cord into the surface of the soft clay. Sometimes short individual motifs were produced by wrapping a cord around a stick (Peterborough ware), or part or the whole of a vessel was wrapped closely in cord (Corded Ware and some varieties of Beaker).
CATEGORY: artifact; technique DEFINITION: Decorative technique in which cord or string is wrapped around a paddle and pressed against an unfired clay vessel, leaving the twisted mark of the cord
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: cord-marked pottery CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Ceramic vessels whose outer faces are decorated with motifs created by pressing twisted cord into the soft clay surface before the pot was fired. Sometimes short individual motifs are represented (also called ?maggot impressions') where a length of cord has been wrapped around a small stick and then used as a stamp. In other cases long pieces of cord have been closely coiled around the pot and then pressed into the surface.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Corded Ware CATEGORY: ceramics; culture DEFINITION: A Late Neolithicpotteryware decorated with twisted cord ornament found over much of north and central Europe in the 2nd half of the 3rd millennium BC. The commonest shapes are the beaker and the globular amphora. The ware is always associated with primitive agriculture, the stone battle ax, and usually with single burial under a small barrow or kurgan. The ware may derive from Denmark, central Germany (Saxo-Thuringia), eastern Poland, or the Ukraine. The culture received its name from the characteristic pottery. Some groups also had metal artifacts. There is some evidence that Corded Ware people had domesticated horses and wheeled vehicles, and they are sometimes interpreted as nomadic groups -- possibly Indo-European speaking -- who spread across northern Europe from the east. Closely related are the Globular Amphora and Funnel Beaker cultures.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A type of glass made by twisting melted glass around a core, often with different colors. This technique was used especially in the Classical and Hellenistic periods of the eastern Mediterranean.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Cornish handled urn CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Type of middle Bronze Age pottery vessels found in the extreme southwest of Britain and dating to the 2nd millennium BC. Generally rather barrel-shaped in profile and often with a highly decorated upper body, these large vessels commonly have strap handles. The decoration includes herringbone and lattice patterns, in the main executed in twisted cord and impressed techniques. Related to Trevisker ware in southwestern England.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A flat piece of wood upon which a stick (drill) is twisted vigorously to start a fire.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A pattern of ornamentation that consists of twisted and plaited ribbons making geometric patterns, or of intertwined strands extending from animal and plant motifs. In the 7th and 8th centuries, interlace ornament was refined and used to great effect by Celtic and Anglo-Saxon metalworkers, sculptors, and manuscript illuminators. This artistic tradition was also prominent during the Vikingperiod.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Khnemu CATEGORY: deity DEFINITION: The ancient Egyptian god of fertility, associated with water and procreation. Khnum was worshipped from the 1st Dynasty, c 2925-2775 BC, into the early centuries AD. He was represented as a ram with horizontal, twisting horns or as a man with a ram's head. Khnum was believed to have created humankind from clay like a potter and his first main cult center was Herwer. From the New Kingdom (1539-1075 BC) on, however, he became the god of the island of Elephantine and the area of the First Cataract of the Nile River. There he formed a triad of deities with the goddesses Satis (Satet) and Anukis. Khnum also had an important cult at Esna, south of Thebes.
La Mouillah point
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A point like a piquant-triedre except that it is backed and the tip then twisted off so the microburinscar forms an extended point
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Any running design consisting of a single line or band twisting regularly. The spiral meander is a simple running spiral, the square meander a rectilinear form of the same thing. The earliest known examples of finger painting are the prehistoric decorative and figurative meanders" traced on walls of the Altamira caves in Spain."
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Gold neck ornament current in the middle Bronze Age of northwestern Europe (1200-900 BC) comprising a circlet of twisted metal with simple hooks and balls at the terminals to fasten the ends together when worn.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A length of cord usually made from twisting fibers together which increases the strength of the rope.
Shaft Grave Circles A and B
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Richly furnished tombs at Mycenae made up of circles enclosed by a low stone parapet and containing 30 graves total. The offerings suggest that the rules of Mycenae must have been buried here, probably in the later 17th and 16th centuries BC. The grave goods include gold and silver cups, jewelry, dress ornaments, golden diadems, elaborate hairpins, amethyst beads, amber, and bronze weapons. The great influence of Crete on these graves is visible in the metal cups, faience sacral knots" appliquéd ostrich eggs conch shells gold triple shrine facades and imported pottery. There is a wealth of local art such as formal gold cups goldworked in patterns of lions bulls and plants and lions twisted as ornament."
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Site in Norfolk, England, of a hoard of fine late Iron Age metalwork, dated to the 1st century BC. The hoard consisted of around 200 gold, silver, and bronze torcs (neck -rings), gold bracelets, and coins. The finest torc was made of eight twisted strands of electrumwire, each strand made of eight strands; the terminals were decorated in relief and one contained a Gallo-Belgic coin of the late 1st century BC.
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: The extrusion of liquid fiber-forming material, followed by hardening to form filaments; a technical process by which fibers are twisted together to make continuous threads. The wool was fixed as a mass on the distaff. A thread was drawn out by one hand and fixed on the spindle. Attached to this last was a stone spindle whorl. As the spindle was spun around the whorl gave momentum on the flywheel principle. The thread from the distaff was twisted and then wound on to the spindle. Rarely are the threads, or cloth woven from them, are found in archaeological contexts, unless preserved by desiccation, waterlogging, or metal corrosion products. Proof of spinning comes more commonly from the discovery of a spindle whorl, loomweight, or comb. Spinning was engaged in during Neolithic times.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: torque CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A neckring, of gold or bronze, and penannular in shape (an almost-complete ring). Examples are made of spirally twisted metal and appeared in the Early Bronze Age of central Europe and continued to the Roman occupation, being particularly popular among the Celts. Very common in the La Tène Iron Age, examples of gold, silver and electrum occur in graves and hoards.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A decorative band in which two ribbons twist in a regular pattern around a row of circles. In the double torsade, three ribbons twist around two rows of circles.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A twisted fiber which is immersed in wax, grease or oil except for one end which is lit.