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Cape Krusenstern
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: The site of a national monument on the coast of the Chukchi Sea with a horizontal stratigraphy covering the whole of north Alaskan prehistory. Located on 114 ridges along ancient beach lines, the monument's remarkable archaeological sites illustrate the cultural evolution of the Arctic people, dating back some 4,000 years and continuing to modern Eskimos. There are campsites of 10 successive cultures, beginning with the Denbigh Flint Complex, followed by the Old Whaling culture, then by the Eskimo cultures known as Trails Creek-Chloris, Chloris, Norton, Near Ipiutak, Ipiutak, Birnirk, Western Thule, and late prehistoric. On the terrace behind the beaches were two more phases (Palisades I and II) which go back to c 8000 BC. The stratigraphy is visible as a sequence of strips, roughly parallel to the shoreline, with the oldest, Denbigh, being furthest from the present-day shoreline. This horizontal sequence, in combination with the vertical stratigraphy of Onion Portage, forms the most reliable chronological framework in Western Arctic prehistory.
Fiorelli, Giuseppe (1823-1896)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: Archaeologist who took over the early excavations at Pompeii, from 1860-1875, and was one of the first to apply the methods of stratigraphy and area excavation on a large scale. Through his training school at Pompeii he passed on his methods to many other archaeologists. He also developed a technique for taking plaster casts of the hollows in the hardened ash and cinders, thus creating impressions of the dead and other materials.
Housesteads
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: ancient Vercovicium, Borcovicium; Dorcovicus
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: The best-preserved fort along Hadrian's Wall in Britain; one of the best examples of a permanent military camp there, with its defenses, street plan, administrative buildings, and barrack blocks. There was also a small civil settlement for traders, etc., at its gates. It is roughly midway along the Wall's length, in Northumberland. At Housesteads, archaeologists have uncovered a market where northern natives exchanged cattle and hides for Roman products. This allowed Roman wares and Roman cultural influences to make their way north.
Muselievo
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Palaeolithic site on the Osm River near its confluence with the Danube in Bulgaria. Artifacts include bifacial foliates and sidescrapers; the layer is estimated to date to the early cold maximum of the Last Glacial.
Musengezi
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: Late Iron Age group of the Luangwa Tradition, 13th century AD, known from burial caves in northern Zimbabwe.
Novye Ruseshty
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Novi Rusesti
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Neolithic and Eneolithic site in Moldova, starting with the Linear Pottery culture and then the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture.
Psusennes
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Pasebakhaenniut
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: Birth name taken by two kings of the 21st Dynasty, who ruled from Tanis in the Delta at the start of the Third Intermediate Period: Psusennes I Aakheperra Setepenamun (ruled c 1045-c 997 BC) and Psusennes II Titkheperura Setepenra (ruled c 964-c 950 BC).
Roquepertuse
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A late Iron Age sanctuary in Bouches-du-Rhône, France, where there was a Celto-Ligurian oppidum and famous stone sculptures. These included large human figures seated in a cross-legged position, and a portal with niches for the display of severed human heads as it was the site of a skull or severed-head cult. Many carvings bear traces of their original paint. The sanctuary was probably of the late 3rd or 2nd century BC and was destroyed by the Romans in 123 BC during their conquest of Provence.
Ruse
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Russe, Roussé, Sexantaprista, Roustchouk
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A city of northern Bulgaria, located on a major crossing-point of the Danube, which began as a fortified Roman harbor called Sexantaprista (Sixty Ships) in the 1st century BC. It was destroyed by barbarians in the 7th century. The Ottomans built a new town Roustchouk which subsequently bore the names Cherven and Roussé. It is the site of a large tell of the Karanovo V-VI group (4th millennium BC) where 11 Copper Age occupation levels have been uncovered. Interspersed between house levels were over 100 intramural burials.
Sondershausen
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Linear Pottery culture cemetery in eastern Germany with spondylus shell ornaments.
Syracuse
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A Corinthian colony and principal port founded traditionally c 734 BC on the east coast of Sicily. The earliest occupation was on the island of Ortygia; later settlement was on the mainland in the Achradina area. Early Palaeolithic material occurs in the Great Harbor. Syracuse was the leader of Greek cities in Sicily and had many struggles with Athens and Carthage, becoming capital of Roman Sicily in the 3rd century BC. Siding with Hannibal in the Second Punic War was a mistake which led to a long siege by Rome. In the early Christian era, Syracuse became something of a religious center, and there are extensive catacombs. From the 5th century onward, the city's civilization disintegrated under the general chaos of the western empire. Surviving remains include the archaic Doric temples of Zeus and Apollo, Temple of Athena, the Greek theater, and a 3rd-century AD amphitheater. Evidence also survives for an extensive fortification system of Epipolae, a triangular-plan rocky plateau which was unified with the city in some 27 km of walling; the Fort of Euryalos was at the highest point.
Trusesti
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Large settlement and cemetery site of the Late Neolithic Cucuteni-Tripolye culture, in Moldavia, Rumania. The site has almost 100 complete house-plans on a promontory, enclosed on one side by a double ditch, and there were rich pottery assemblages of the Cucuteni A phase.
cause
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: In the archaeological sense, any event that forces people to make decisions about how to deal with a new situation.
causeway
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: A pathway or road, often paved but not macadamized. It was often a raised road across a low or wet place or body of water - as from the Nile to a pyramid across the desert plateau. The term was used for the Roman roads, especially military ones, and was also applied to piers that extended into rivers or the sea.
causewayed camp
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: A hilltop entrenchment characteristic of Neolithic times, 4th millennium BC, especially in southern Britain. The hilltop was enclosed by a series of concentric ditches, 1-4 in number, with internal banks and which were not continuous but interrupted by solid causeways (undisturbed lanes of earth). Pottery, animal bones, and domestic garbage stratified within the ditches show that the camps were used during the entire Neolithic period. A common theory about the camps' use is as meeting places used at intervals by the population of a wide area.
ceramique oncteuse
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: A type of medieval pottery of western Brittany, made from the 10th-18th centuries. It is typically very soft and uses talc as the tempering material. This unusual pottery was a distinctive product of the Breton culture.
charnel house
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: Building or vault in which bones or dead bodies are placed
cruse
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A small earthenware container used for liquids.
de facto refuse
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Artifacts left behind when a settlement or activity area is abandoned.
grubenhaüser
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Grubenhauser
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: Characteristic 'sunken' huts of the Germanic peoples during the Migration Period and up to c 1000, so-called for their sunken floors. They were usually rectangular and had a superstructure supported on 2, 4, or 6 posts. The sunken hut was usually roofed by a lean-to structure supported by one or three posts at either end and a simple ridge post creating a tent-like structure. It seems that many of these buildings had floors, with the sunken area being a kind of shallow cellar. Grubenhaüser have been found in the Low Countries, Britain, France, often alongside rectangular buildings and farmhouses. These sunken huts apparently date back to the Roman period in North Germany and Frisia. Dienne-sur-Meine in France has many post-Carolingian examples of Grubenhaüser. In England , the first sunken huts were probably employed as short-term dwellings by the migrants. It was a significant type of building distinguishing early medieval settlements in western Europe.
house of the dead
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: A type of wooden building above a tomb or connected to a grave, widespread in Denmark and Germany, but also found in other areas of northern Europe during the Neolithic period.
household
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: household unit
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: A social unit comprised of those living together in the same dwelling.
household archaeology
CATEGORY: branch
DEFINITION: A branch of settlement archaeology specializing in the study of the activities and facilities associated with ancient households or houses.
household cluster
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: household unit
CATEGORY: term; feature
DEFINITION: A term used to describe a set of features associated with one house structure. Components would include a house, a few storage pits, graves, a rubbish area, perhaps an oven or hearth, and activity areas. It is an arbitrary archaeological unit defining artifact patterns reflecting the activities that take place around a house and assumed to belong to one household.
housemound
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: A type of low earth platform used by the ancient Maya Indians as a foundation for a house.
longhouse
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: long house
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: In Neolithic times, an elongated (oblong) wooden post house that appeared in central Europe with the first farming communities within the Early Neolithic Bandkeramik cultures, about 4500-3000 BC, as well as the later Iron Age, about 100 BC-500 AD, of north-central Europe. It also applies to the Late Woodland cultures of northeast North America, about 1300-1600 AD, especially the Iroquois and Huron. Life in the longhouse had ended by 1800, but the meeting room of the contemporary tribe continues to be called the longhouse. In North American antiquity, longhouses were divided into living quarters for a number of groups. In Europe, structures may have been multipurpose buildings for dwellings and livestock stables. Among the most famous are those of the Linear Pottery culture, which reach lengths of up to 40 meters. Archaeologically, the two halves of the long house are often distinguished by the existence of a hearth in the living quarters, a central drain, and sometimes stalls in the byre. The purpose of the European long house was to keep stock during the wet winter months, and at the same time to provide dwelling for the farmers. In Upper Palaeolithic times, the long house was an elongated above-ground structure of up to 100 meters in length, with a central series of hearths. The walls and roofing were probably supported by wooden poles and large mammal bones. Remains of these have been found in Kostenki, Pushkari, and Avdeevo.
mammoth-bone house
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: A kind of dwelling built by people of the Upper Palaeolithic in central and eastern Europe between c 25,000-12,000 bp, especially in areas where wood was scarce. The remains of such a structure would typically have a circular or oval arrangement of woolly mammoth bones and tusks, with a central hearth and occupation debris. The bones and tusks were the structure's support. External to the structure may be hearths, pits, and debris. Examples are found in Poland and the former Soviet Union. Mammoth bones were used to build the winter structures for some of these peoples and the mammoth fat used to keep the fires burning.
mortuary house
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: A wooden or stone copy of an actual dwelling, buried under a barrow or kurgan, and used as a tomb for the dead. There is sometimes an overlap between the definitions of mortuary house and mortuary enclosure, but very different ritual ideas may be involved. A mortuary house often contains only a single corpse, and serves primarily as a sepulcher rather than as a charnel house in which bodies were accumulated. Grave goods might be included and, in some instances, an earthen mound (barrow) was raised over the mortuary structure.
museum
CATEGORY: structure; term
DEFINITION: An institution that collects, studies, exhibits, and conserves objects for cultural and educational purposes; literally, a temple (or seat) of the Muses. The term was first applied to an establishment founded by Ptolemy I, called Soter, at Alexandria in Egypt, in the late 3rd century BC.
obtuse
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A term used to describe a rounded tip or blunt tipped artifact.
pit house
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: pithouse; pit dwelling
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: A subterranean or semi-subterranean dwelling found in the American southwest; the earliest manmade dwellings. It usually had an underground floor and aboveground earthen or brush walls supported by interior posts and was the primary habitation structure of individual families of basketweaving cultures. These structures may be round, oval, or square to rectangular, but usually have a straight entrance. Most were roofed with thatch and supported by posts. Often, all that remains on an archaeological site is a large, shallow pit. Its most popular period was 200-900 AD and it evolved into the kiva.
primary refuse
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Unwanted objects or materials found in the context where it was used and discarded.
re-use process
CATEGORY: term; artifact
DEFINITION: The transformation of materials through successive states within the behavioral system. Potsherds, for example, are sometimes ground up to be used as temper in making new vessels.
refuse
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: trash, garbage
CATEGORY: artifact; feature
DEFINITION: Any materials or remains left behind or discarded by humans.
reuse process
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: Any human behavior that recycles and resuses artifacts before the artifact enters an archaeological context
secondary refuse
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Unwanted objects or materials that are removed from the site at which they were used and are disposed of at a different location. This often included artifacts, bone, shell, and other habitation debris, discarded away from the immediate area of use.
secondary use
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: An artifact or feature showing an alternate or later use that differs from its original function. For example, an abandoned well might be used as a refuse pit.
sweat house
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: sweat-house
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: Special building for taking sweat-baths (cleansing one's body by sweating), a common native Californian institution. There was a fire area for heating stones; water would then be poured over the stones to produce steam. They doubled as community centers for prayers and other religious activities.
use
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: The third stage of behavioral processes, in which artifacts are utilized (the others being acquisition, manufacture, and, later deposition).
use retouch
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: An irregular scattering of small scars often found on the edges of artifacts and though to be the accidental result of tool use
use-life
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: uselife, use life, use-life continuum
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: The length of time a tool or artifact is used before it is discarded; the sequence a tool goes through from production to discard.
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: A primary context resulting from abandonment of materials during either manufacturing or use activities.
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: A secondary context resulting from disturbance by human activity after original deposition of materials.
use-wear analysis
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: edge-wear analysis; usewear analysis; microwear analysis; use wear analysis
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: The examination and study of the edges and surfaces of artifacts, mainly stone tools, to determine the type of wear they have experienced and thus the tasks for which they were used. Microscopic analysis is used to detect signs of wear on working edges.
use-wear striae
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: use-wear stigmata
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Polish, striations, breakage, or minor flaking which develop on a tool's edge during use. Microscopic examination and study of the wear may indicate the past function of tools.
wheelhouse
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: wheel house, wheel-house
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: A stone-built, circular-plan house with partition walls projecting inwards like the spokes of a wheel - a form widespread in western and northern Scotland, the Hebrides, and Shetland Islands in the early centuries AD. It characterizes the later Iron Age culture and survived into the Roman period as dwellings and farmhouses.

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