(View exact match)veneerCATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: A wall facing or covering of stone, or stone and mortar, that does not contribute to the support of the wall.
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PuucCATEGORY: site; artifact
DEFINITION: Region in the north-central region of the Yucatán, Mexico, with a distinctive Maya architectural style of 600-900 AD, the last variant of the Classic Maya culture. Its main characteristic is the use of veneer masonry to cover rubble and concrete walls, and the prefabrication of sculpted elements which were assembled to form patterns and masks. The style was florid, with alternating zones of plain and elaborately decorated carving; fret- and lattice-designs and round columns are common, with many low, single-story residential buildings. These mosaics are found at Uxmal, one of the best-known Puuc centers. Puuc architecture has also been found at Labná, Kabah, and Sayil. The style spread all over the northern Yucatán and there are some structures at Chichen Itza. Puuc sites are thought by some to represent a lowland Maya New Empire with their apogee in the 9th-10th centuries a time during which the great Petén or Central Subregion centers were in decline or had collapsed.UxmalCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Important Puuc Maya site of the Late Classic period (600-900 AD), located south of Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. It is the best known site built in Puuc style, with the Pyramid of the Magician, Palace of the Governor, Nunnery Quadrangle, the House of Turtles, and the House of Pigeons. There are large masonry buildings with a veneer of well-cut stone and decoration on the upper portions. The site was very well planned and flourished c 800-1000 AD. No Long Count dates are associated with the site and construction ceased c 1000 after the rise of Chichén Itzá. It was connected by a causeway (sache) to the Puuc site of Kabáh. The ruling family of the city were the Tutul Xius. According to Maya legend, Uxmal continued to be occupied and was a participant in the political League of Mayapán. When the league ended, Uxmal, like the other great cities of the north, was abandoned (c 1450).river terraceSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: terrace
CATEGORY: geography; geology
DEFINITION: A bench or step that extends along the side of a valley and represents a former level of the valley floor. They are the result of alternating period of erosion and aggradation (silting) within a river valley, brought about by oscillations of sea level relative to land. When sea level is low, the gradient of the river is increased, the water flows more quickly, and cuts away the river bed. During a period of high sea level the gradient is less, the river flows sluggishly, and gravel is deposited on the valley floor. A second period of erosion will carry away most of this gravel, except at the edge of the valley where a residual platform, or terrace, may remain. It is often possible to correlate cycles of erosion and aggradation with the fluctuations of Pleistocene climate, and thus to work out the relative dating of artifacts incorporated in the gravels of the terraces. Another type of terrace is cut into bedrock and may have a thin veneer of alluvium, or sedimentary deposits.terraceCATEGORY: geography
DEFINITION: A bench or step that extends along the side of a valley and represents a former level of the valley floor. Terraces are flat surfaces preserved in valleys that represent floodplains developed when the river flowed at a higher elevation than at present. Another type of terrace is cut into bedrock and may have a thin veneer of alluvium, or sedimentary deposits. In paired terraces, the terrace features on each side of a valley correspond. A marine terrace is a rock terrace formed where a sea cliff, with a wave-cut platform, is raised above sea level. Any terrace consists of two parts: 1) a tread, which is the flat surface of the former floodplain, and 2) a scarp, which is the steep slope that connects the tread to any surface standing lower in the valley. A simple definition is the previous location of the shore of a body of water or a valley floor on which a stream once flowed. Archaeological deposits associated with terraces are equal in age or younger than the terrace.